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Firstly, $|\mathbb Z_n|=n$, whereas $|\mathbb Z_n^*|=\varphi(n)<n$. So, by the pigeon-hole principal there cannot be a mathematically invertible function $f:\mathbb Z_n\to\mathbb Z_n^*$. So, lets relax our idea of what 'invertible' means a bit. How about ensuring every element of $\mathbb Z_n^*$ has a preimage? Yep, we can do that. To use a couple of ...