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But if Server’s certificate is checked sucessfully by Client, how is it possible to consider that Server has been authenticated by Client, while at this time none message signed with Server’s private key has been sent to the Client and verified by it ? If only consider the key exchange to be what the RFC says it is, then yes this key-exchange can ...


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Your idea seems secure, but it is more complicated than it needs to be. If you only need to know if the "secure information" in the document matches some public information (stored on an insecure computer), it is enough to calculate a preimage resistant hash of the document (e.g. SHA-256). The document needs only to be unguessable, like a 256-bit random ...


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The authentication tag in GCM is generated by XORing a block cipher output with the Galois field hash (and truncating it for shorter lengths). It is thus assumed to look PRF. So it is effectively just a random nonce that should not collide until a birthday bound of $2^{t/2}$. With a tag length of 96 or more bits, it should be secure. Shorter random IV ...



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