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First the theoretical explanations: Integrity and authenticity are different goals to achieve, but both are achieved (for symmetric encryption) with a MAC. You should probably be using encrypt-than-MAC or an authenticated cipher unless you have very good reasons not to. No blanket statements can be made though. HMAC: HMAC is a often used construct. It ...


When we have regions of the packet that we only authenticate but not encrypt, that happens because we have data that we want to bind to the encrypted region, but we don't need to include within the encrypted region. Examples of this are: For IPsec, we include the sequence number (as a part of the ESP header). We include that within the authentication ...

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