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We talk about cryptanalytic tools here. A differential trail describes how a certain difference evolutes throughout the cipher, which helps to find out a key in a standard differential cryptanalysis. Each trail activates certain non-linear operations (S-boxes), which contribute to its probability (a difference goes through a nonlinear operation ...


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The usual convention on attack cost is the following: "the cost is N" means that running the attack, with a success probability of at least 50%, requires no more than: N bits of memory space (RAM), N plaintext/ciphertext pairs, N*x clock cycles, where x is the number of clock cycles to compute one instance of the attacked algorithm (in the case of AES, ...


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Simply put no. As per the abstract, those attacks take at most 4 bits off the key space, this still results minimally in 124 bits of security. Put another way, to use these attacks you would need to expend effort roughly proportional to brute forcing an AES key where you already knew four bits of the key and this would take approximately $2^{124}$ ...



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