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When talking about encryption with block ciphers, you should distinguish block cipher itself from the mode of operation that employs the block cipher. Block cipher takes an input $P$ of fixed length $n$ and transforms it under key $K$ (and possibly under other parameters such as tweak $T$) to output $C$ of the same length $n$: $$ E:\; P \xrightarrow{K(,T)} ...


3

The two plaintexts are almost certainly identical. At the very least, any difference between them must be representable in 32 bytes, since that's as much information as the XOR of the encrypted files contains. Assuming that the plaintexts are indeed identical, we can also see that changing the encryption key has a very simple and predictable effect on the ...


6

First of all, we need to review what they mean by "parity of a permutation"; they don't mean whether the input block had a even number of 1's. Instead, they view the $n$ bit cipher (with a specific key) as a permutation on $2^n$ objects; that is, it can be review as a way of rearranging that set of $2^n$ objects onto itself. Now, permutations on a finite ...


6

There are many well known and studied ways of constructing a hash function from a block cipher. A thorough (but reasonably readable for a beginner) treatment of many of the classic approaches, and the security properties of the various constructions, can be found in Black-Box Analysis of the Block-Cipher-Based Hash-Function Constructions from PGV, which is ...


5

Yes, we can build a hash function from a block cipher, and that's common, although with block ciphers designed for that purpose, when in the following I focus on AES, mentioned in the (different) question that motivated the present answer [which got moved here because said question was found to be a duplicate]. One classic method to obtain a hash function ...


2

A "cryptographic" hash function commonly has to fulfill two properties: It is collision resistant, meaning that there is no efficient (probabilistic polynomial time adversary), who can find two different messages that map to the same hash value It is compressing, meaning that takes a 'long' string and outputs a shorter hash value. Simply encrypting a ...


3

Remark: in One Time Pad the pad is used once, thus this is not OTP, since here $k$ is reused. Hint for part 1: Write the relations between $k$, the message blocks $m_i$, the ciphertext blocks $\small C_i$ with the convention $\small\text{IV}=\small C_0$. Then, find equations that allow computing the desired $m_3⊕m_4$ from known quantities. Hint for part 2, ...


5

It can't be achieved under the assumptions you are making, because the attacker can distinguish it by selecting an arbitrary $k'$, and checking if $E(k')$ commutes with the permutation in question. That is, to check a permutation $P$, we pick an arbitrary $x$, and check if: $E(k', P(x)) = P(E(k',x))$ This equation always holds if $P = E(k)$ for some value ...



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