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The question is from Problem 2 in Assignment 6 given here. It looks much like a straight instance of the RSA problem: we want to find $x\in\mathbb N$ such that $x^e=E\bmod R$ and $x<R$, given $R$, $E$, $e=7$, with $E$ expected to be the product of two unknown primes $p,q$ such that $e$ is coprime with $(p-1)\cdot(q-1)$. It is correct that knowing none of ...


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Often a dictionary attack is also classified as brute force, e.g. according to RFC 4949 (the Internet Security Glossary). That doesn't apply to encryption with random keys, but does apply where the key is derived from a password, or when the cipher is used for password hashing, like DES-based crypt.


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Apparently, you are mixing two different things. Cryptography and applications that use cryptography. In cryptography, brute-force attacks use the strategy of testing all possible values of a certain domain looking for a match. For example, if you are interested in applying a brute-force attack on the key space of a certain cipher, you must enumerate all ...


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Brute force attacks are usually implemented in custom hardware or software for maximum performance. Obviously the method of encryption must be determined before the attack can be implemented. The encryption method can be determined in several ways: It's publicly available e.g. open source code, or open specification It's secret and gets leaked by someone ...



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