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Great question. I'll answer it in several parts. Which Keys does Alice send? There are two cryptographic operations that Alice may want to do: encryption/decryption, and signing/validation. You can either use the same keypair for both, or have two separate pairs of keys. 1 keypair method: Here Alice would sign outgoing messages, and decrypt incoming ...


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Alice sends a CSR (certificate signing request) to the CA, which contains her public key, her name and usually her location. This CSR is then signed to prove ownership of the associated private key. The CA uses the data in the CSR to derive a certificate which will be handed to the user afterwards. The user can then prove his identity. The CA needs to ...


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Very basically, the hash collision it can be used to fool CA's to sign a certificate that stores one set of information in the certificate's attributes, while there the requester uses it to create one or more certificates with different attributes. The attributes in the certificate are as important as the public key that is being signed. They contain, for ...


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A typical X.509 certificate is the combination of data (including a public key $Pub_B$), and of a signature $Sig_A$ of that data, to be verified with an unrelated public key $Pub_A$. In order for the verifier to know which hash to use when verifying $Sig_A$, there is use for a field in said data specifying the hash used by $Sig_A$, and that's the purpose of ...



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