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15

It's the difference between an active and a passive attacker: Known plaintext attack: The attacker knows at least one sample of both the plaintext and the ciphertext. In most cases, this is recorded real communication. If the XOR cipher is used for example, this will reveal the key as plaintext xor ciphertext. Chosen plaintext attack: The attacker can ...


10

"Known plaintext" means that the attacker has knowledge of some data and its encrypted counterpart, but he did not choose either (it is "chosen plaintext" when the attacker chooses the plaintext and obtains the corresponding ciphertext, and "chosen ciphertext" when he chooses the ciphertext and obtains the corresponding plaintext). What is "plaintext" ...


9

XXTEA (also known as Corrected Block TEA) is a block cipher with $128$-bit key and block width parameterizable to $n\cdot32$ bits for $n\ge2$. It is an Unbalanced Feistel Cipher making $q=6+\lfloor52/n\rfloor$ passes over the block, with $q\cdot n$ rounds each modifying $32$ bits of the block. In Cryptanalysis of XXTEA, it is presented a chosen-plaintext ...


9

These aren't "attacks" in and of themselves, they are simply a way to classify attacks depending on how many assumptions they make. For instance, if an attack requires plaintext-ciphertext pairs to recover the key, but they don't have to be any particular pairs, that attack is categorized as a known-plaintext attack. However if another attack required the ...


8

That sounds like an overly succinct description of the 'Find then Guess' (FTG) notion of security, described in the paper "A Concrete Security Treatment of Symmetric Enryption". And you are correct, there is something the test is missing: the two 'challenge' plaintexts must be the same length ($|m_0| = |m_1|$). Also, the description is so succinct I can't ...


7

I found a little more info on Google, so let me provide a partial answer to my own question. In particular, I found a post by David Wagner to sci.crypt in 2004, titled "IND-CPA for CFB mode", which in turn led me to a paper titled "Practical symmetric on-line encryption", published in FSE 2003 by Fouque, Martinet and Poupard. In this paper, the authors ...


7

Thomas is correct; there's no attack on CFB mode if you can predict the IV; NIST is just being cautious. With CBC, the value of the first encrypted block $C_0 = E_k( IV \oplus P_0)$, where $IV$ is the IV used for that packet, $P_0$ is the value of the first plaintext block, and $E_k$ is the evaluation of the block cipher. If an attacker can predict the ...


7

The XXTEA cipher is badly broken. Even though the paper is not published at a conference, the author verified it on reduced versions of XXTEA. You should never ever use a cipher or a hash function, that has been broken in academic terms, in particular if you are not a cryptographer. Attacks always get better, and a cipher does not attract much attention ...


7

CBC mode encryption is defined as: $C_i = E_k(P_i\oplus C_{i-1})$ (with $P_i$ being the $i$th plaintext block, and $C_{i-1}, C_i$ being the ciphertext blocks. What might happen if we have a lot of ciphertext encrypted with the same key is if two ciphertexts happen to be the same, that is: $C_i = C_j$ If we see that, we can then immediately deduce that: ...


6

In your formula, $n$ appears to relate to the key space, not the message space. The message space does not intervene in the definition of IND-CPA, and that's a good thing because practical message spaces consist in messages which "make sense" in a given context. There are situations where the attacker already guesses quite a lot of the attacked message, and ...


6

I was/am assuming that for public key encryption, COA means "other than the public key, ciphertext only". Otherwise, any secure symmetric cipher with the key published becomes a "COA resistant" PKE scheme. With that in mind, access to an encryption oracle cannot possibly help an attacker, since the attacker can already encrypt any plaintext using the ...


6

Repeatedly encrypting the same message to the same ciphertext is full of practical attacks. Encryption is supposed to leak no information about the content of the message other than its length, and there are very real ways to exploit the information leakage you mention. Some of them have to do with the fact that plaintext domains are not always very large. ...


6

Slight revision based on Paulo's remark in the comments - in a public key system a chosen plaintext attack is pretty much part of the design - arbitrary plaintexts can be encrypted to produce ciphertexts at will - by design, however, these shouldn't give any information that will allow you to deduce the private key. A chosen ciphertext attack can be used ...


6

The $1/2^{32}$ is an arbitrary figure, based upon one particular value for what counts as an acceptable risk. You need to decide what is an acceptable risk. If you think that a $1/2^{32}$ probability of failure is an acceptable risk, then this calculation is relevant to you. If you think it isn't, then decide what you think is an acceptable risk and re-do ...


6

This isn't just limited to asymmetric schemes; in any chosen-plaintext attack, even for symmetric ciphers, the attacker can (by definition of the CPA game) compute as many encryptions as they like (limited to polynomial time, of course). Formally, we say the adversary is given access to an "encryption oracle." Anyway, you have stumbled across a necessary ...


6

It seems to me that what you need is a public-key signature scheme like rsa signatures. The process would work something like this: A user license $L$ is created by your license generator Your system signs it to give $s(L)$ and the licence is $\{L,s(L)\}$. When program tries to open the user's license $\{t,v\}$: The system verifies that $v$ is indeed ...


5

Encryption using a block cypher such as AES by passing plaintext blocks directly to the encryption function is known as Electronic Code Book mode (ECB) and is not CPA secure as (as you say in your question) it is entirely deterministic and two identical plaintext blocks will result in two identical ciphertext blocks. To prevent this an initialisation ...


5

I do not remember if we checked this explicitly, but my guess is that in the chosen-plaintext setting the biclique attack would still be faster than the exhaustive search, maybe by the factor of 2 compared with 4 in the chosen-ciphertext setting. However, both results are pretty far from declaring AES broken in any sense. Such small gain over exhaustive ...


5

Yes, $E$ will be always be secure. This follows from a standard type of proof called a hybrid argument. Giving the full details would be tedious, so here is a sketch in case you are familiar with hybrid arguments: We define games $H_0,H_1,H_2$. We let $H_0$ be the IND-CPA game, but with the game's secret bit hardcoded to $0$. So the game always outputs ...


4

I'm a little bit confused by your notation (what's $1^n$ supposed to mean? based on context, it looks like a key or a passphrase, but I've never seen that notation before), but the exercise itself seems to just amount to proving that an Encrypt-and-MAC scheme, using a deterministic MAC of the plaintext which is sent in plain, cannot be IND-CPA secure. To ...


4

While Ilmari answered the specific question you asked (Chosen Plaintext Distinguishers), I would like to note that the attack can be sharpened into a Known Plaintext Key Recovery attack (where, by key recovery, I don't mean recovering the $E_k$ matrix, but instead allowing an attacker to reconstruct enough information to decrypt arbitrary texts). One ...


4

Yes. Assume that the attacker knows the ciphertext $c = c_1 \mathbin\| c_2$, the initialization vector $v$ and the plaintext $m = m_1 \mathbin\| m_2$. This tells them that $D_k(c_1) = m_1 \oplus v$ and $D_k(c_2) = m_2 \oplus c_1$, where $D_k(\cdot)$ denotes block cipher decryption under the (unknown) key $k$. In particular, this implies that, if the ...


4

Under a chosen-plaintext attack, the adversary has the power to encrypt polynomially-many chosen plaintexts. In the symmetric world, since only the valid parties hold the encryption key, only the valid parties can "grant" the adversary access to an encryption oracle. So, it isn't assumed that an eavesdropper necessarily has access to an encryption oracle. ...


3

If you can read the intermediate states of the encryption algorithm you could recover, one by one all the round keys. Given a AES round, all the operation between the two AddRoundKey (at the beginning and the ond of the round) are invertible. Take for example round 1: you get the internal state before AddRoundKey (of round 2), you get back at the beginning ...


3

You are mistaken about what an encryption scheme is. As CodeInChaos pointed out AES is a primitive and we assume that it is a preudo random permutation. That is an assumption since the way AES is built means that we won't be able to formally prove that it is one. With that PRP we try to build modes of encryption that might or might not be CPA-secure I ...


3

This result is proven in the following research papers: Johan Hastad, Mats Naslund. The Security of all RSA and Discrete Log Bits. Journal of the ACM, Oct 2003, pp.1--45. W. Alexi, B. Chor, O. Goldrech, C. Schnorr. RSA and Rabin functions: Certain parts are as hard as the whole. SIAM Journal on Computing, vol 17 no 2, pp.194--209. They show that if ...


3

Sure. Assuming that you're using the encoding $A = 0$, $B = 1$, etc., just choose your plaintext messages to be the one-block strings: $$ BA \dots A \\ AB \dots A \\ \vdots \\ AA \dots B $$ The encryptions of these strings will then directly give you the columns of your key matrix.


3

Advantage and success probability are just words. Their meaning is in practice decided by how the speakers of the language use the words. You have observed that people use the terms advantage and probability in this way. One could probably argue that this is confusing or illogical or something like that, but such is language. About dividing by two: ...


3

Yes, this is easy enough to exploit. Start by sending any 15-byte message $m$, and then 256 different 16-byte messages consisting of $m$ followed by each of the 256 possible values of the last byte. One of the encrypted 16-byte messages will have the same first ciphertext block as the encryption of $m$. Find out which, and you've found the first byte of ...


2

A known plaintext attack is that if you know any of the plaintext that has been encrypted and have the resulting encrypted file, with a flawed encryption algorithm you can use that to break the rest of the encryption. Example: We saw this with the old pkzip encryption method. In this case if you had any of the unencrypted files in the archive, you could ...



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