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This isn't really a "hard" answer, but an attempt to give some intuition or motivation. One can interpret indistinguishability as an overapproximation of the most common notions of security: Any system that is broken in a more practical way will also fail to meet indistinguishability, that is, all practically important security requirements are in fact ...


4

Katz & Lindell mention in their book "Introduction to Modern Cryptography: Principles and Protocols" an example of an IND-CPA attack from World War II. Navy cryptanalysts suspected that Japanese ciphertexts containing the fragment "AF" where referring to the Midway island. Then, they told officials at Midway to send unencrypted messages reporting they ...


1

It can be proved, mathematically, that your (2), (3), and (4) are all equivalent under chosen plaintext attack. That is, if you can do any of those things then you can also do the other two! It should be obvious that (2) implies both (3) and (4): if you can decrypt a message then you know which message it is, and also you know it's not random noise. The ...



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