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If the ciphers are different, with independent keys, you can say that it is at least as strong as the first cipher. If the ciphers commute, like with stream ciphers, you can even say that it is at least as strong as the strongest. See Cascade Ciphers: The Importance of Being First. That's really all you can say in general. In practice, the combinations you ...


In general, all you can say is it can be as weak as the weakest encryption layer, if you're lucky. Edit: It can also be even weaker, for badly chosen components that cancel out some mathematically desirable properties, as pointed out in the comment.


How secure is this modified Bazeries Cylinder? That depends on what you expect us to compare it to. I doubt you’re looking for an answer along the lines of “it’s more secure than Scytale, but less secure than AES”. Therefore, I will try to narrow it down a bit by saying that it is safe to assume it can not – in any way – provide the same security levels ...


Yes, you can perform rudimentary asymmetric encryption or signing by hand, but no it won't be secure. Textbook RSA with small enough numbers is easy to do by hand. Diffie-Hellman to exchange a symmetric key is even easier. However, the kinds of numbers for which this is feasible are far from those needed for real security. There are a lot of other ...

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