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4

There are two well-known Encryption modes, that can construct a $mn$-bit tweakable blockciphers from a $n$-bit blockcipher ($n=64$ for DES) with $1\le m\le n$. The older one is CMC, being not parallelizable. It was superseeded by Encrypt-Mix-Encrypt (EME), which is parallelizable. The basic idea of the two algorithms is to encrypt each block of input data ...

3

In addition to the tweakable enciphering schemes in the comments, I'll leave this reference here: https://eprint.iacr.org/2009/356.pdf It essentially shows (in the ideal cipher model) that using an n-bit block cipher in a three-round Feistel construction gives you a 2n-bit block cipher.

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