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How does Salsa20 work? The basic building block of salsa20 is a fixed 512 bit permutation. This is similar to a block cipher with a fixed and publicly know key (or a zero bit key if you prefer). Since it has no key input, you can't use it with block cipher modes of operation. The next step in Salsa20 is a feed-forward by adding the input into the output, ...


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Every paragraph ends with : "this operation is invertible", I suppose the whole salsa20 algorithm is. The Salsa20 quarterround, and thus rowround, columnround and doubleround are invertible. However, the whole Salsa20 core is not because the initial state is added to the state after iterating the rounds (cf. page 6 in the spec). If I use salsa20 ...


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The sum of PRPs is a secure PRF. That paper gives as a security bound for a sum of two independent PRPs $q^3/2^{2n-1}$, where $q$ is the number of queries and $n$ the block size (i.e. 128 for AES). That means that your construction, correctly used, is more secure than a single PRP, for which the bound is $q^2/2^n$. If you wanted to give an adversary an ...


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No, this is safe. In fact, if you show a way of distinguish the stream $AES_{k_1}(C) \oplus AES_{k_2}(C)$ from a random stream with fewer than $2^{64}$ outputs, you have just demonstrated a way of distinguishing AES from a random permutation. Here is how this works: suppose we are given Oracle assess to a permutation $P$, which might be $AES_{k_1}$ for ...


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The seed should be the key and the nonce or IV. Those input parameters determine the value of the key stream. Note that the nonce may be implied if the key is not reused, in that case the key may be the only seed, with the nonce having a static value (you should however make sure that you are not vulnerable to multi-target attacks if you use a static IV, see ...


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Some cryptographers feel that the ultimate goal for an encryption scheme is semantic security or, even better, perfect security. An encryption scheme that supports de-duplication also allows the backup server -- and the attacker, who we assume steals every backup tape that the server sysadmins send to the off-site backup location -- to detect which parts ...


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The once part inside of the nonce in CTR mode means effectively "once for this particular key". If you use a fresh key for each message (e.g. by encrypting it using public-key crypto or similar), you can use the same nonce for all the messages (or a size-zero nonce). The important part is that the combination of nonce and ctr-value (i.e. what is input into ...



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