Data privacy refers to (cryptographic) methods to prevent the disclosure of sensitive (identifying) information of persons. This may either be concerned with the privacy of data itself, i.e., the content, or behavioural data of users such as how often a user uses a specific service, which services a user uses, or how often does a user access a specific data object. Former is typically achieved via encryption while for the latter a set of cryptographic privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) exist.

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