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According to the following link (Slide 5) and to what I studied last semester, http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee4_network_security/L02DESIDESAES.pdf During the final round (Round 16) before the inverse permutation, the left and right halves of the bits will be swapped then the inverse permutation will be applied.


I think this would effectively make your cipher a single round. Key mixing is usually an XOR operation of the round key on the current state. XORing all of the round keys at once is effectively only xoring a single key. If you have an $n\times n$ bit s-box $s(x)$ (e.g. Rijndael's sbox), then $s(s(x))$ is just another sbox which can be expressed as a lookup ...


This is known as the "key complementation" property of DES; I had thought that it actually predated Biham and Shamir's work. In any case, your questions: Does this hold for only that particular combination of s box or it will be same for any S-box combination It'd remain even if you change the sbox's arbitrarily. The reason for this is that it is not ...

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