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If you add a truly random character into a truly random position of a word (uniformly chosen), you get "entropy of position" + "entropy of character" as addition to the entropy of the word. (Not exactly, it's a bit less). The entropy of character is the size of the possible characters. 64 possible characters would be $log2(64) = 6$ bits of entropy. Entropy ...


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By that statement, does that mean adding a random character to a random position in a Diceware word adds 10 bits to each word? No. The ten bit estimate is for adding a random symbol from the 36-item table to a random position in the passphrase. The entropy in the character choice is about five bits and the entropy in the choice of position is another ...


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If you have a secret key (256-bits) shared between the two systems that see the entity identifiers, you can use HMAC-SHA256 to map entity identifiers to a random string. Under the assumption that HMAC-SHA256 security is good (which is widely believed to be a reasonable one), this is just as secure as having generated a truly random mapping, but requires ...


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Suppose the server did not include $v$ in the computation of $B$. In such case the following events have happened: The server has sent a salt value $s$ to the client. We might assume it is authentic (because it is easy for the fake server to get it from the real server). The client re-calculates its long term private key $x$ such that $v = g^x$. The client ...


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But this proof value must be something both the client and the (legitimate) server can compute, and thus it must be entirely determined by: values chosen by the client and sent to the server during the authentication process, values chosen by the server and sent to the client during the authentication process, and the password and/or the ...



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