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$\mathbb{Z}^*_{13}$ is a group with 12 elements, not 13. A group is defined by a set of elements, and a "law". The law combines two elements and yields a third one within the set. You get a group if the law fulfils some properties (the law is associative, there is a neutral element, each element has an opposite in the group). $\mathbb{Z}_{13}$ is a group ...


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Through repeated DH attempts, could Alice and Bob build a large random key for use as a one-time pad? No, since that is not how a one time pad works. You can use your idea to create cryptographic material to encrypt plaintext using XOR, what you are describing is an asymmetric stream cipher of some sorts. A one time pad requires an "offline" exchange ...


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Guess the catch in the video is in how the participants exchange details 'publicly'. If the Man-In-The-Middle can intercept and manipulate what is being 'publicly' shared, then the attempt to eavesdrop would still be successful.



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