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The standard for full-disk encryption (FDE) is XTS mode or ESSIV-AES-CBC. XTS tweaks each block within each sector differently (and hence avoids ECB's problems) and is considered the best choice available at the moment. ESSIV-AES-CBC works by using AES-CBC with the IV being the hash of the sector index. The problem with this mode is that you can flip bits ...


The ZFS file system uses AES in CCM or GCM modes. This works because in ZFS the data and file system metadata is encrypted but the block pointers are in the clear, the AuthTag (MAC) is stored in the block pointer. ZFS also has a SHA256 based merkle tree based on the block pointers that is used for data integrity for resilvering and navigation purposes. ...

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