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10

This depends on the public-key system (algorithm). For RSA, technically the private and public key (i.e. the exponents, the keys share the same modulus) are symmetric, you can swap them, and it still works. But you usually don't want to do this: The public exponent is usually a small number (like $3$ or $2^{16} + 1$) in order to speed up ...


5

Is this (cryptographically) secure? That is hard to say without knowing the exact details of the bitcoin protocol (which I would like to understand better, but don't have the time at the moment). Looking at the document you linked to, the public child key is created as $\text{HMAC-SHA512}(Key = c_{par}, Data = ser_P(K_{par}) || ser_{32}(i))$. This ...


2

No, they are not conceptually related. A keystream is the output of a stream cipher and is of (effectively, for modern ciphers) infinite length. If you need to encrypt more plaintext, you use the cipher to produce more bytes of keystream. On the other hand, password salts are of fixed size and their purpose is to make every password effectively unique. A ...


2

Is appending the hash of the plaintext to the end of an encrypted message sufficient to ensure integrity? Not in the sense of authentication. Such a construction is malleable for many reasonable encryption algorithms. It also leaks the plaintext to anyone who can guess it, since they can calculate $h(P_i)$ for guesses (brute force or dictionary attack) ...


2

According to the following link (Slide 5) and to what I studied last semester, http://www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/ee4_network_security/L02DESIDESAES.pdf During the final round (Round 16) before the inverse permutation, the left and right halves of the bits will be swapped then the inverse permutation will be applied.


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Ad hoc… What you’re describing is not much different from the encryption in storage systems… only that your “storage system” is a file (foo.txt) instead of a hard drive. Now, in a perfect world you would encrypt every block of data (that you store in foo.txt) with its own key, but that would be pretty impractical in your situation. From my point of view, ...


2

Is it necessarily a peer review process? Does an algorithm need to withstand exploit attempts for N amount of time by M many experts? Or, is there a mathematical proving process that security experts can apply on their own to evaluate an algorithm? Yes, yes, and sometimes. Some algorithms can be proved secure under certain assumptions. However, ...


1

(You should take a look at page 18 of FIPS 197 where it describes the MixColumns transform). You're close. Swap the order of your matrices so that you have: |02 03 01 01| |d4 e0 b8 1e| |01 02 03 01| |bf b4 41 27| |01 01 02 03| |5d 52 11 98| |03 01 01 02| |30 ae f1 e5| And then you compute the new columns. i.e. the new first column is: |02 03 01 01| ...


1

I'll further explain the comment of @CodesInChaos and then give a simple example: Explanation When the correctness requirement is weakened the encryption scheme can omit part of the message $m$ (of length $|m|$) to be encrypted and just "loose" it in a way that the cipher (the output of the Encrypt method) is totally independent of that part. Thus the ...


1

Basically, "length" increases the time a brute force or other generic attack takes, while "complexity" makes it more difficult or less likely to find attacks faster than those. However: The length in question varies depending on the algorithm or operation. It can be the length of keys, the block size of a block cipher, the state size of a PRG or the ...


1

My personal opinion: "proven secure" is more of an advertising slogan than anything else. The one-time pad and certain multiparty protocols can be shown to have some kind of information-theoretic security; these are exceptions to the rule. "Don't roll your own crypto" is still sensible advice however. For the rest of this discussion, I'll try and stick to ...



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