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If you aren't worried about collusion or dynamic group membership, then a very simple solution is to simply have one key for encrypting the messages and another for signing them. The encryption key gives someone read access and the signing key gives them write access. Only nodes with the encryption key will be able to successfully decrypt the messages and ...


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The -bf-ecb cipher is expanding the key to 128 bits by zero extending it. The output from -p is the telltale here: $ openssl enc -bf-ecb -e -in plaintext.txt -out ciphertext.txt -nosalt -K FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF -p key=FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF0000000000000000 Blowfish is defined for 32-448 bit keys, and it appears the OpenSSL implementation chose 128 bits as the size ...


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Because the function used for RSA encryption and decryption is commutative. This means that given secret key $sk$ and public key $pk$ for all messages $m$ you have that $$D(E(m,pk),sk)=E(D(m,sk),pk)=m.$$ This means that first encrypting a message with the public key and then decrypting the so obtained ciphertext with the corresponding secret key yields the ...


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This is not an answer, but no longer fits a comment. Feel free to improve it, it is a community wiki. It is asked the effort to break PKZIP 2 encryption, described in section 6.1 of the .ZIP File Format Specification, assuming a high-entropy password (that is, next to 96-bit entropy for the internal key after password preprocessing in section 6.1.5), and ...


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The notation you are seeing is for symmetric crypto. Garbled circuits typically use symmetric crypto since it can and symmetric crypto is fast. You may be able to do garbled circuits with asymmetric crypto, but it is definitely non-standard and may have subtle issues.


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When you are e.g. sending TLS encrypted data over a SSH tunnel, there are two things in particular that should be noted: The TLS handshake will only commence, once the SSH connection has been established. The bulk encryption keys of TLS will be completely independent of the SSH encryption keys. Since the handshakes and keys are completely independent, ...


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Short Answer: Yes Long Answer: From what I understand about quantum computing, they are only more efficient as long as the bit-depth of the problem falls within the bit-processing capabilities of the quantum processor. Example: a 64-bit quantum processor could solve 64-bit traditional encryption keys in a near-zero real time. 128-bit keys would still take a ...


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Typical scenario is to run the raw shared secret through a key derivation function to generate keys for any symmetric primitives they will use.



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