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13

AES-GCM has the following problems: In the case of nonce reuse both integrity and confidentiality properties are violated. If the same nonce is used twice, an adversary can create forged ciphertexts easily. When short tags are used, it is rather easy to produce message forgeries. For instance, if the tag is 32 bits, then after $2^{16}$ forgery attempts and ...


9

The answer is, yes, you can get FIPS certification even if you don't implement every approved cryptographical primitive, or if you don't implement every possible option of those primitives. When you undergo FIPS testing, they ask you to fill out an "information form" that asks for the details of what cryptography you claim to implement. These includes ...


8

In comparison against CBC mode and HMAC, GCM mode is quite commonly better alternative. But, I'll go to detail where it neccessarily is not. Just like Richie Frame, I also do not agree that CBC + HMAC is always the best comparison target. I've added few other details. Hope you find them useful. Against CBC and HMAC I'll discuss downsides first. The ...


7

The GCM authentication tag doesn't need to be encrypted. Just attach it to the ciphertext in the clear. A very quick intuitive justification: It's an authentication tag derived from the ciphertext, it doesn't contain any sensitive information itself. The security of the GCM model assumes the tag is left in the open. (The GCM spec, SP 800-38D, shows the ...


6

If you go through the math, it appears that exactly the expected amount of ciphertext expansion is happening. Here's what's happening: The GCM takes the plaintext as a byte string of size N, and generates a ciphertext which is a byte string of size N+28, where 12 of the 28 is the nonce, and the other 16 is the authentication tag. Then, that octet string ...


6

First of all, a terminology nit: please don't say "a One-time-pad generated by a CSPRNG"; a one-time pad must, by definition, be generated randomly, and an important part of its security proof is that it was generated randomly (and so an attacker cannot disqualify any potential pad, even if that attacker had infinite computational resources). ...


6

It is indeed safe to send it along with the ciphertext; the attacker can't learn anything from it (other than possibly how many packets has been generated so far, if you use a counter to generate the IVs), and if the attacker modifies the IV, the resulting message will fail to decrypt (with high probability). Existing protocols that can use GCM (TLS, IPSec) ...


6

In the context of packet communications, it feels like it would be optimal to setup key and IV once and then use that single initialisation in some way for all packets on the same channel. It might be optimal for efficiency standpoint, but we also care about security; it isn't necessary very good for security. You mentioned that, with CBC mode, you can ...


6

AEAD modes like GCM are authenticated encryption with associated data; this setting only affects the associated data half of that. The ciphertext itself is still authenticated. The associated data portion is there to provide contextual information for the authentication of the ciphertext. Usually this data is something that's outside of direct control of the ...


5

I don't see any obvious way to do this without violating the security of GCM; at least, if you are at all concerned with an evesdropper (and if you're not, why are you encrypting at all?) Here is a distallation of your requirements: you want to have the sender send the ciphertext (including nonce, ciphertext and tag). Then, you want the sender to be able ...


5

To answer your question: yes, GMAC does have niche applications where it performs better than either HMAC or CMAC; however it might not make sense for you. First of all, you are correct in that GMAC requires an IV, and bad things happen if a particular IV value is reused; this rather rules out GMAC for some applications, and is a cost even for applications ...


5

GCM mode already incorporates any params that could affect the outcome of the decryption. The associated authenticated data is there to allow you to rely on context for your decryption. For example, say you are encrypting some records associated with a user. You may want to include the user's database ID as the authenticated data. If a user found a way to ...


5

I suppose one of the problems (they mention several after a short reading) with a mode like GCM is nonce misuse (e.g. reuse). When the key is the same and the nonce is reused, by misunderstanding the concept or by a simple programming error, information about the plain texts can be revealed. Phillip Rogaway has already defined an encryption mode (SIV, ...


5

If you use a CSPRNG to generate the pad, you're not using a one-time-pad anymore by definition since the pad is no longer random, so the question as stated is incorrect with respect to terminology. The advantage of using stream ciphers is that you no longer have the key distribution problem the OTP has, since your key is now only a few dozen bits long, and ...


5

Before answering your questions: GCM is an authentication encryption mode of operation, it is composed by two separate functions: one for encryption (AES-CTR) and one for authentication (GMAC). It receives as input: a Key a unique IV Data to be processed only with authentication (associated data) Data to be processed by encryption and authentication It ...


4

I currently manually append the "tag" property to the ciphertext, is this the correct method of authentication? That is a perfectly acceptable method. In the end, there needs to be some protocol which tells the other party where the ciphertext is and where the authentication tag is. In your case, the other party knows that the last 128 bits of the ...


4

You got some notation wrong. There is no algorithm like "AES-GCM-SHA-256". AES is a block cipher, i.e. a pseudorandom permutation of 128-bit blocks. It itself only allows encryption for messages of size 128 bits (= 16 bytes), with a limited security guarantee. When you mean "encrypt the data using AES", you actually mean "use AES with some mode of ...


4

eBACS, as given by CodesInChaos, is a great resource, and it provides much more data than I could hope to give in this answer. However, the page is not explicit about whether or not AES-NI was used — looking at the results, it doesn't seem so. For an extremely shallow analysis, but allowing us to know for-sure about hardware acceleration, we can use ...


4

AES-GCM uses single block cipher operation and can be processed in parallel, therefore it should be faster. CTR+HMAC requires block cipher and hash function, which usually can't be processed in parallel. Also it requires 2 keys. It is often miss-implemented (MAC-than-encrypt or MAC-and-encrypt, using single key). Cipher-text length is the same for same ...


3

The usual mode for disk encryption is XTS (let's say the mode suggested by the NIST). AEAD cipher seems to be promissing but typically with the GCM you will have also to store an authentication tag per encrypted block which may lead to a complex implementation (but interesting). I believe that regarding at least integrity, there exist "new" file systems ...


3

GMAC is quite simply GCM mode where all data is supplied as AAD (or additional authenticated data), or as NIST SP 800-38D puts it: If the GCM input is restricted to data that is not to be encrypted, the resulting specialization of GCM, called GMAC, is simply an authentication mode on the input data. If you don't have access to a cryptographic provider ...


3

You certainly could keep the AAD secret; however, for GCM, it wouldn't provide any additional security beyond what the secret key already provides; for CCM, it does still provide some limited authentication protection (but probably not enough). The bottom line: if you can't trust that your key is secret, well, keeping the AAD secret (or have a secret ...


3

Well, I'm unfamiliar with this specific C# library, and so I can't answer questions about its API. I could guess, but I suspect you want something better than that. However, I can answer generic GCM questions. 1a. What does the AAD consist of? Well, AAD is another service that GCM provides. When encrypting messages, it is actually quite common to want ...


3

You could, however the one part that doesn't translate in an obvious manner is the Galois field representation; you would need to pick a field representation for $GF(2^{256})$ and $GF(2^{512})$, because those have not be predefined for those sizes. Here's the issue; GCM does field multiplications internally; that is, it takes two $N$-bit vectors (where $N$ ...


3

Unless you are absolutely sure that you don't need to and that the cost is going to be significant then I would absolutely say you should use authenticated encryption. One reason is bit-flipping attacks - flipping a few bits at the 'right' point in your encrypted message might lead well to a message that is legal (the classic example is if someone learns ...


3

No it is not less secure. GCM and a number of other authenticated modes typically let you specify optional data which is authenticated but not encrypted. That is all this is. So the code is making it explicit that there is no data that is only authenticated.


2

Yes, the nonce will be used with a counter appended in order to generate the CTR mode keystream. It will also be used as an input to GHASH: which is a polynomial MAC used to authenticate the data. The nonce itself does not have to be random, it can be a counter. But it absolutely must be unique for each message encrypted with the same key. Using GCM on two ...


2

It is not possible to get the same secret every time. You get a new random shared secret reach time. The protocol (for a known generator $g \in G$ where $G$ and $g$ are chosen correctly) is Alice computes $A=g^a$ and sends $A$ to Bob. $$Alice \ g^a\xrightarrow{A} Bob$$ Then Bob computes $B=A^b$ and sends it to Alice. $$Alice \xleftarrow{B} B=A^b\ Bob$$ ...


2

The ECIES (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme) should be used for encrypting file and data. ECC(P-521) is over kill, P-256 is enough secure and more efficient.


2

There exists a case where developers implemented a new version of the GHASH algorithm that used the new PCLMULQDQ instruction found in Intel processors, and a bug in the implementation allowed message forgery. The code change appeared to improve the performance of AES-GCM on newer processors as well as processors with additional cores that do not support ...



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