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2

That might not be speed-efficient, but for educational purpose it is possible to implement the CTR internals manually, by using the ECB mode of CNG: Set the Algorithm mode: BCryptSetProperty(hAesAlg, BCRYPT_CHAINING_MODE, (PBYTE)BCRYPT_CHAIN_MODE_ECB, sizeof(BCRYPT_CHAIN_MODE_ECB), 0) Encrypt all blocks the IV with counter with the key hKey: ...


2

With concatenation the caller only has to ensure the nonce is unique. For example they can use a counter that increments for each message. Incrementing a counter for each message is convenient in many scenarios, including encrypted network transports like TLS. If you use xor or add nonce and counter you get overlaps, so a counter as nonce would be fatally ...


-2

Its generally use it to authenticated the sequence number to protect against deleted messages and replay attacks


2

Should the external nonce passed to GCM be authenticated separately when passing over network? No, that is not necessary; it is implicitly authenticated by GCM itself, pretty much as the AAD is also authenticated. That is, if someone in the middle modifies the nonce, then that will alter the authentication tag that the decryptor computes as a part of ...


3

A message encrypted with AES-GCM can be decrypted with an AES-CTR library IF the authentication tag is stripped from the message. If you are encrypting with AES-GCM and then adding an HMAC tag, you need to strip the HMAC and the GTAG off the message in order to decrypt it, assuming the IV section of the message is in the correct location for each library to ...


0

BouncyCastle (for Java) has code that performs the AAD processing anywhere in the stream. It does however require modular exponentiation and additional multiplication. GCM mode officially requires the AAD to be processed before the plaintext, but as stated, there is a way around that. I've asked for an explanation here Len A||C is only required at the end ...



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