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10

This is trivially true via the pigeonhole principle. SHA-2/512 has $2^{512}$ possible outputs, but $2^{2^{128}} - 1$ possible inputs. Trying $2^{512}+1$ unique inputs is sufficient to produce at least one collision. That said, SHA-2/512 is designed to be collision resistant, which implies that it should be hard to find two inputs that hash to the same ...


7

What choice did they have? F1 is a bitwise function with three inputs and one output. There are $2^8 = 256$ such functions. Only 70 of them are "unbiased" (i.e. have as many 0 and 1 outputs in their image). If you further require that each input, as well as the order of inputs, matters for the output, you are left with only 36. However, those 36 are all ...


5

With respect to collisions, hashing twice can not increase security, because if $x$ and $x'\ne x$ collide for $H$, that is $H(x)=H(x')$, then $H(H(x))=H(H(x'))$. Otherwise said, any collision for $H$ is a collision for the double hash $H\circ H$. It is therefore trivial to exhibit collisions for $\operatorname{MD5}\circ\operatorname{MD5}$. Hence the answer ...


3

Actually, if you define the $H_i$ functions properly, it can be done. I'll make the simplifying assumption that we can treat the $H_i$ and $F$ functions as Oracles (that is, you're not allowed to look inside their implementation); I believe that it's still possible without that assumption (but the solution may be more complex). For our primitives, we'll ...


2

When the lower 63 bits of current_block are 0 (that is, for current_block either $0$ or $2^{63}$), the step last += current_block is the same as last ^= current_block, and all operations in compress are linear. Otherwise said each bit of the output of compress is a function that reduces to the XOR of some of the input bits. We express this as a boolean ...


2

Proof by contradiction is easy in this case. Assume the construction is not collision resistant. Then there's an adversary who can efficiently find a pair $H(x) = H(x')$. However, that also gives them $H_1(x) = H_1(x')$ and $H_2(x) = H_2(x')$, so neither hash function is collision resistant, which contradicts the assumption.


1

Any PRNG with a finite state size is eventually periodic. The maximum period possible is $2^n$ for an $n$-bit state, but the average with a well mixed state is $2^{n/2}$. Here the hash function used is SHA-512, but the state is 1024 bits. A first guess would be a period of $2^{512}$, rather than the $2^{256}$ mephisto gives. Let's look at the cycles. Both ...


1

Yes, this PRG is theoretically periodic. Approximately after generating $2^{512}$ outputs a state will be generated that collides with a previous state. (A previous version of this answer said $2^{256}$ as I missed that two outputs are used for the state. Otus answer pointed out this mistake.) This follows from the birthday problem. However, $2^{512}$ is ...



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