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4

It has the disadvantages of any MAC-then-encrypt scheme, which I'm quoting from the linked answer below. In addition: It has the property that you need both a nonce and a hash, so for equivalent security it requires more message space. The nonce has to be random, so it requires strong random numbers for each message, unlike e.g. AES CTR + HMAC. Doesn't ...


4

A one time pad (OTP) should by definition not have any patterns. An entropy source can have patterns, but an OTP by definition should consist of pure random bits. In general you can create something that is close to a true random number generator by applying a cryptographic hash function over the output of an entropy source. According to NIST you should ...


4

Actually, the Merkle–Damgård construction also specifies a padding bit after the message. The length is there the ensure that a padded message cannot be the suffix of a different longer message. A collision at the prefix leads to a collision in both messages. With a padding bit, a singe byte message 0x30 vs a 2 byte message 0x30 0x00 are padded to 0x30 0x80 ...


2

Isn't it still possible to find two different inputs that will be padded to the same value and then deliver the same hash? Well, no, it isn't. Given a padded message (that is, padded by adding a 1 bit, and then as many 0 bits as needed to fill it out to a multiple of the internal block size), we can unambiguously recover the original message -- by ...


2

If there exists an encryption scheme, then there exists an encryption schemes such that one can easily modify a single ciphertext so that whether or not that modifies the decryption result depends in a predictable-and-useful way on what the plaintext message was, such as: The modified encryption operation outputs a zero concatenated with the original ...


2

It'll be the same situation that NY City suffered some days ago: when you have little variability on your data, i.e., they have a fixed-small size, it'll always be fast to brute force. You don't say how long your number is, so I'll assume it can range from 0 - 10,000,000,000 (so, a unique number for each human being on Earth today, plus some spare). You ...


2

If your ints are unsigned then the code r = (r * 33) + (int)c and the fact that you're using 32-bit integers yield the equation $\;\;\;\; \text{new_r} \: \equiv \: (\text{old_r} \cdot 33) + \text{(int)}\hspace{.02 in}\text{c} \;\; \pmod{2^{32}} \;\;\;\;$. Since 33 is odd and $2^{32}$ is even, 33 is a unit mod $2^{32}$. $\:$ I used wolframalpha to determine ...


2

Am I on the right track with reversing DJB2 (can it be reversed?)? Is there some way of finding the remainder of a large number that has been modded by 232? You were on a right track to explain why it can't be easily inverted. Given an arbitrary $h_i$, every letter of the alphabet will give you another potential $h_{i-1}$ that the value was before that ...


1

I haven't seen much analysis on using ordinary hashes for content authentication. Can anyone can give me a pointer on whether this is safe? With good choice of primitives it is. Public key signatures use a hash function in a similar way to identify the message signed. However, where a MAC only needs what amounts to second preimage resistance, a hash ...


1

What is the probability that both [Hu] = [Hmu] and [He] = [Hme]. In english, what is the chance that two different files can have identical hashes in both an unencrypted and encrypted form? Depends on whether they are "random" files or attacker controlled. MD5 is a 128-bit hash, so for two random files that differ the probability that they have the ...



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