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One possibility for what you might be missing: normally the same key (the same matrix) is re-used to encrypt many messages. So now try counting the total entropy in $M$ length-$N$ messages, and the entropy in a $N\times N$ matrix, and compare what happens when $M$ gets large.... Another possibility you might be missing is the consequences of the fact that ...


2

Let $k=\left(\begin{array}{cc}k_0 & k_1\\k_2 & k_3\end{array}\right)$ be the key. And I'll assume the transformation $a=0$, $b=1$, and so on. So you know $k\left(\begin{array}{c}0\\1\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{c}c_0\\c_1\end{array}\right)$ where you know $c_0$ and $c_1$. Thus $c_0=0k_0+1k_1$ and $c_1=0k_2+1k_3$. So that is two equations, ...


2

Since it's a linear cipher, you should be wary about a guessable padding, otherwise if your last block is only one char long, you will reveal almost your whole matrix on this last block. If you're too afraid of mangling the last word, use something like 'Z'+(random chars). But I really would not use any predictable padding with such a cipher.


2

You would need (at least) 3 pairs of vectors in order to determine the 3*3 matrix.


1

Updated answer The question was changed, so here is my updated answer. This scheme is not secure against known-plaintext attacks. It is no better than an ordinary Hill cipher. If you iterate the recurrence relation you listed, we find that $$x_k = Bx_0 - Cx_{-1}$$ and $$x_{k-1} = Cx_0 - Dx_{-1}$$ where $B,C,D$ are matrices given by $B=f(A)$, ...


1

Linearizing should work fine. You'll have to make a minor adjustment to deal with the fact that we are working modulo 26, but either of the following two simple tweaks should work fine: You could use generalized Gaussian elimination, generalized to work over $\mathbb{Z}/26\mathbb{Z}$ (standard Gaussian elimination assumes we are working over a field, but ...



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