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5

NMAC is really just an "education tool" on the way to HMAC and I don't think anyone intended it to be used. The two keys are needed since the first and second hashes have different purposes. The first hash on the message is just needed to get collision resistance, whereas the second hash is supposed to provide a pseudorandom function type property. As such, ...


3

If you are asking if $M(M(M(k, C_1) C_2), s)$ has the same or better security as $M(k, C_1 | C_2 | s)$ then the answer is yes. You can see this as a double key derivation to calculate a new key from $k$ using the constants $C_1$ and $C_2$ as derivation data. Then the resulting key is used to MAC the final serialNumber. $M$ is of course HMAC, $C_1$ and $C_2$ ...


2

A lot has changed recently in this area. Now the only ciphersuites Chrome considers non-obsolete (those that use AES-GCM or ChaCha+Poly1305), do use Carter-Wegman MACs. So, I would say that there is no disadvantage and that any low popularity has been just an artifact of historical decisions in standardization. Secure hashes were the first to be openly ...


2

Does this mean that it is possible to attach any string x on m1 and the tag of it will be the same as the tag for x attached to m2? Yes. If using HMAC, then with high probability, the tag on (m1, x) will be the same as the tag on (m2, x). With CMAC, the attack works with probability 1. If my assumption is true could this be considered as a length ...


2

This is like stating that $H(C_1|m_1|x|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|x|C_2)$ if $H(C_1|m_1|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|C_2)$ for HMAC. That is probably correct if $H$ is a hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction (such as SHA-1 and SHA-2) and if $m_1$ and $m_2$ end on block boundaries. $H(C_1|m_1|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|C_2)$ implies that the state after hashing $C_1$ and ...


1

How is the MAC or HMAC secret shared with the other party for verification? It depends on the type of implementation or system you are interested in, but i can share my experience. Unless pre-agreed key is known before hand, usually a public key cryptography is used to share secret key (e.g. AES-key) over a public insecure channel. Encrypting by the ...



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