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5

NMAC is really just an "education tool" on the way to HMAC and I don't think anyone intended it to be used. The two keys are needed since the first and second hashes have different purposes. The first hash on the message is just needed to get collision resistance, whereas the second hash is supposed to provide a pseudorandom function type property. As such, ...


2

A lot has changed recently in this area. Now the only ciphersuites Chrome considers non-obsolete (those that use AES-GCM or ChaCha+Poly1305), do use Carter-Wegman MACs. So, I would say that there is no disadvantage and that any low popularity has been just an artifact of historical decisions in standardization. Secure hashes were the first to be openly ...


2

Does this mean that it is possible to attach any string x on m1 and the tag of it will be the same as the tag for x attached to m2? Yes. If using HMAC, then with high probability, the tag on (m1, x) will be the same as the tag on (m2, x). With CMAC, the attack works with probability 1. If my assumption is true could this be considered as a length ...


2

This is like stating that $H(C_1|m_1|x|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|x|C_2)$ if $H(C_1|m_1|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|C_2)$ for HMAC. That is probably correct if $H$ is a hash function based on Merkle–Damgård construction (such as SHA-1 and SHA-2) and if $m_1$ and $m_2$ end on block boundaries. $H(C_1|m_1|C_2) = H(C_1|m_2|C_2)$ implies that the state after hashing $C_1$ and ...



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