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One example of a situation where an "IV" needs to be secret can be found in one of the original papers on the HMAC construction: Bellare, Mihir, Ran Canetti and Hugo Krawczyk. 1996. "Keying hash functions for message authentication." http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.134.8430 Quoting pages 4-5 (my boldface): The first ...


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Normally, in a properly designed cryptographic system, everything that must remain secret is either actual data (and the system exactly aims at preserving that confidentiality) or a key. Everything else ought to be public or at least publishable with no ill effect, as per Kerckhoff's principle. Now it so happens that a number of cryptographic systems are ...



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