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Actually, the Merkle–Damgård construction also specifies a padding bit after the message. The length is there the ensure that a padded message cannot be the suffix of a different longer message. A collision at the prefix leads to a collision in both messages. With a padding bit, a singe byte message 0x30 vs a 2 byte message 0x30 0x00 are padded to 0x30 0x80 ...


2

Isn't it still possible to find two different inputs that will be padded to the same value and then deliver the same hash? Well, no, it isn't. Given a padded message (that is, padded by adding a 1 bit, and then as many 0 bits as needed to fill it out to a multiple of the internal block size), we can unambiguously recover the original message -- by ...



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