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Keccak uses a sponge construction to output arbitrary length hashes. This is a distinctly serial operation. Although the inner permutation can be perfomed with a certain level of parallelism using bit-slicing, it is faster in software using native 64-bit operations. P is the message input per block, z are outputs, and f is the inner permutation. In order ...


Keccak is Sponge-based hash function: [Image taken from the official sponge page] It has a large internal state, and iterates this with a permutation (that for theoretical proofs we model as an ideal permutation). The total state of Keccak is $s=r+c$ bits. Because the user can only ever read from or input data into the $r$-section of this (the 'rate ...

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