# Tag Info

14

The XOR is indeed meant as a protection against hypothetical short cycles. For a given password P, the sequence of Ui should make a "rho" structure: at some point in the sequence, a cycle is entered. For a n-bit hash function and random password, on average, there will be a single "big" cycle of size about 2n/2 and for almost all possible salt values, that ...

11

The best you can hope for is the following: You derive the password into a "big enough" (e.g. 128 bits) secret key $K$ with a Key Derivation Function like PBKDF2. There are some details to be aware of (see below). You use the secret key $K$ as seed for a Pseudorandom Number Generator. The PRNG is deterministic (same seed implies same output sequence) and ...

10

What you suggest is valid. Here is a way to show it: In a fully implemented signature system (things are similar for asymmetric encryption), there are three modules: a key pair generator, which produces a pseudo-random key pair; a signature generator, which uses the private key to produce a signature over some piece of data; a signature verifier, which ...

8

For the purpose of key diversification (that is, assigning a unique key per device), a true master_key is customary; that is, one with plenty of entropy (like, 128 bits or more random bits). Edit: that's now stated in the question. With that caveat, yes, PBKDF2(password=master_key, salt=serial_number, rounds=1000, dkLen=16)is appropriate to generate one ...

7

You can use TLS 1.0 as guidance: it is the direct successor of SSL 3.0, so many things are quite similar, and in some respects TLS 1.0 is a bit clearer. In section 6.3 you will find the key generation process, with the exact sentence: To generate the key material, compute [...] until enough output has been generated. Then the key_block is ...

7

Short answer: just truncate, it's fine. Long answer: you want a Key Derivation Function. A KDF turns an arbitrary-sized input (the shared secret obtained from SRP) into a configurable sequence of bytes, which you can split into as many sub-sequences as you need for symmetric cryptography. For instance, SSL/TLS defines a KDF (it calls it "PRF"; see section ...

7

@D.W. is probably closest to the real reason (this was fifteen years ago, so things get a bit hazy), there was some concern about short cycles, and it was effectively free - you're already iterating the hashing deliberately to slow things down so speed isn't an issue - so why not do it? You've also got to remember the historic context, when replacements for ...

6

As mikeazo notes, PBKDF2 supports the generation of arbitrary amounts of key data. It accomplishes this simply by appending a running counter to the salt and rerunning the key derivation process to generate new output blocks, so there's no obvious reason why you couldn't apply the same construction to bcrypt. The scrypt KDF also supports arbitrary-length ...

6

To be honest, there's no good reason why the XOR is needed. My suspicion is that, most likely, the designers included it because they thought, "hey, why not? it can't hurt". But if the designers had left out the XOR, everything would have been just fine. In particular, if PRF() is a secure pseudorandom function, and if we stick with typical parameters, ...

6

In my practice (Smart Cards, often using DES and increasingly AES) Key Expansion is often used to designate production of subkeys in a block cipher. This process is often a mere bit extraction, as part of the algorithm's Key Schedule. Key Diversification is, almost exclusively, the process of producing a device key from its serial number (or other ...

6

Let's start with a general secure KDF construction, as follows. Let $F(k,x) \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$ be a secure PRF. Then choose $L$ such that $L \times n$ provides as many output bits as you need for all of your generated keys. Let $S$ be your original secret key/entropy. Generate the following string: $KDF(S,N,L) := F(S, C || 0) || F(S, N || 1) || ... || ... 6 KDF must produce results that have certain randomness properties, and be very difficult to reverse. Password hashes only need to satisfy the property "difficult to reverse", without randomness requirements. This is why all KDFs work as password hashes but not the other way around. 6 Yes, this is a fine approach. This sort of technique is known as "key separation". Since your master key is a cryptographically secure key, you do not need to use a large iteration count. Also, you could use any PRF, in place of PBKDF2. (The iteration count is normally used if you are applying PBKDF2 to a passphrase, instead of a cryptographically secure ... 6 I'd use HKDF's "expand" step to generate multiple keys from one masterkey. Use PBKDF2 to derive that masterkey from the password and salt. i.e. replace the "extract" step of HKDF with PBKDF2. //Extract MasterKey = PBKDF2(salt, password, iterations) //Expand AES-Key = HMAC(MasterKey, "AES-Key" | 0x01) MAC-Key = HMAC(MasterKey, "MAC-Key" | 0x01) (where | ... 5 If the keys have constant, known length, I'd concatenate them, and then apply SHA256. If they have variable length, applying some separation mechanism might be useful. Truncating hash functions works well. If the original hash function is good, a truncated hash function has the same properties, albeit at a correspondingly lower security level. Truncating ... 5 You are using a Vernam-encryption (simple XOR), as for the one-time pad. The general principle for Vernam is that it is perfectly secure as long as you never reuse the same key for more than one message, and gets utterly broken as soon as it is reused even once (this is the "two-time pad"). The key here is the hashed password, the message the key. If one ... 5 If you want key diversification with a key as input, you are better off using a key based key derivation function (KBKDF) over a password based key derivation function (PBKDF). Difference is that KBKDF requires a key with high entropy. This also means that it does not require a salt nor an iteration count. It does however require context specific data for ... 5 I am familiar with the RC4 related key attacks; I can say that if you publish the nonce, and use any of the first 256 bytes of the RC4 keystream, that you are vulnerable to those attacks. These attacks exploit a correlation between specific bytes of the RC4 key, and the initial output values; with your approach, the attackers can guess what (say) byte 2 of ... 5 The same key is indeed used in EAX to key both the CTR mode and the underlying OMAC (which is actually used in 3 distinct phases: randomising the CTR nonce, authenticating the Additional Authenticated Data, and authenticating the Ciphertext). This is explicitly acknowledged in the security proof. Where EAX differs from a naive reuse of the key is that it ... 5 There is nothing related to passwords in AES. AES uses 128-bit keys, i.e. sequences of 128 bits. How you come up with such a key is out of scope of AES. In some contexts, you want to generate these 128 bits in a deterministic way from a password (and possibly some publicly known contextual data, like a "salt"); this is a job for password hashing. In other ... 4 Leaving aside the question of whether or not this is a useful feature, my theory is the designer of PBKDF2 were familiar with the design changes made from MD5 to SHA-1 and felt that it might be beneficial to introduce a parallel data channel like the SHA-1 key expansion array (also constructed with XOR). With negligible overhead, the XOR doubles the ... 4 I agree with you. The XOR seems utterly pointless. A short cycle in the hash chain seems no more likely nor more unlikely than a short cycle in the hash/XOR chain. If one can degenerate into a sequence where additional iterations don't change the value, so can the other. If one can't, neither can the other. 4 PBKDF1 as specified in PKCS#5 and RFC 2898 provides Key Derivation and Key Strengthening. The parameters of the function are a hash function (such as SHA-1), a password, a salt (sometimes called nonce, depending on context), an iteration count and the length of the derived key to be returned. The standard PBKDF1 will just calculate the hash of password ... 4 That's a reasonable solution if you can't use a random salt. If you personalize your hash function for your application, then the salt is globally unique for each user. (e.g. use sitename||username as salt) The only salt reuse happening is that older passwords of the same user have the same salt. But that's a very minor issue. I disagree with Polynomial who ... 4 In theory, someone could do this, but in practice nobody really uses random, sketchy third party cryptography software. Most, if not all, of the commonly used cryptography functions are well understood and tested. Most of them also openly reveal precisely how they work so anyone can implement them. This means lots of people can analyse the algorithms for ... 4 As noted in archie's answer to your earlier question, the EAX paper first defines a generic encrypt-then-MAC composition method called EAX2, with separate keys for the encryption and MAC components, and proves its security (Appendix C). It then defines EAX as EAX2 instantiated with CTR mode and OMAC, and with the same key used for both components, and then ... 4 Is there a better way to do this? Yes there is, using tools specifically designed for this problem - namely key derivation functions (KDF). Good ones include PBKDF2 and bcrypt. A more modern, better alternative is scrypt, but it's relatively new and could use some more analysis before deemed safe. All above mentioned algorithms take a password and a ... 4 Of course you can - but as to whether or not it's a practical or advisable idea, I don't think so. It's not really prudent to implement crypto systems/protocols and assume that they'll be fine in 10 years. Cryptography is a dynamic field that changes rapidly; algorithms get broken, hardware improves, governments try to undermine the field, and attacks only ... 3 I can see a number of problems with your suggestion to let the session key$sk_{n,c}$for node$n$and client$c$be$sk_{n,c} = h^{n+1}(masterkey_c)$, where$masterkey_c\$ is what you refer to as "token": You should use different keys for encryption and integrity, and different keys for the client -> node direction and the node -> client direction, making ...

3

To the best of our knowledge, SHA256 does not leak any additional information from related hashes. On the other hand, the state of "our knowledge" might not be that comprehensive; this security property of SHA256 cannot be derived from the base security assumptions of a hash function (preimage resistance, second preimage resistance and collision ...

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