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7

ElGamal appears to be used instead of Diffie-Hellman (or IES) in OpenPGP mostly because when that format was put together, there were some unresolved intellectual property issues surrounding both RSA and Diffie-Hellman, while ElGamal was unproblematic. This trend for ElGamal seems to stick around, mostly by force of habit, e.g. when switching to ...


6

Handing keys in general is known as key management. Symmetric keys should be kept secret. Secret key is often used as a synonym for symmetric key. The establishment of symmetric keys can be performed in several ways: (Authenticated) Key Agreement (KA) Sending of an (authenticated) encrypted key, also known as key wrapping Derivation from a base key using ...


6

There is nothing related to passwords in AES. AES uses 128-bit keys, i.e. sequences of 128 bits. How you come up with such a key is out of scope of AES. In some contexts, you want to generate these 128 bits in a deterministic way from a password (and possibly some publicly known contextual data, like a "salt"); this is a job for password hashing. In other ...


6

CRAM-MD5 is a protocol to demonstrate knowledge of a password. In the context of email, it is sometime used by an email client to authenticate to a POP, IMAP, or/and SMTP server. Basically, the password is used as the key of HMAC-MD5 in a challenge-response protocol. Among positive things there are to say about CRAM-MD5: The password is not exchanged in ...


6

ECDSA is a digial signature algorithm ECIES is an Intergrated Encryption scheme ECDH is a key secure key exchange algorithm. First you should understand what are the purpose of these algorithms. Digital signature algorithms are used to authenticate a digital content.A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created ...


5

Fair exchange protocols aren't new by any means, but there is a lack of layman-friendly material out there, unfortunately. I think the high prevalence of theoretical cryptography in fair exchange protocols may be partially responsible for that. At any rate, here is the basic idea behind a fair exchange protocol. Suppose you have two parties, Alice and Bob, ...


5

Most likely, this 'shared secret' was actually an IKE "preshared key"; it is used to authenticate the two sides (and, for IKEv1, is stirred into the keys). It actually isn't used as a key (and hence someone learning that key cannot use it to listen in, unless they perform an active Man-in-the-Middle attack). I suspect the password is the authentication ...


5

One observation is that if we modify the problem so that $M, A, B$ are random invertible matrices, then it is easy to prove the security of the system. In fact, we can prove that the system is informationally secure; that is, for any observed $C_1, C_2$ pair, for any possible value of $K$, there is a unique set of values of $A, B, M$ that yield that $K$ ...


4

Asynchronous forward secure encryption is possible if you allow users to have synchronous clocks. It seems impossible without that or a third party, though I am aware of no formal result. A trivial(and hence awful) solution is to generate N key pairs and use one for each interval, discarding them as we go. A somewhat more efficient solution is to use ...


4

Without pairings, there is no known single round tripartite key-exchange algorithm. However, it is possible to do it in two-rounds. For example, refer to the Burmester-Desmedt conference key protocol (http://www.cs.fsu.edu/~burmeste/eurocrypt_plus_proof.pdf) which in fact works for an arbitrary number of users. This being said, would it be possible to find ...


4

That was a bad edit to Wikipedia. The phrase "Carry-forward verification" is not a standard, well-known term in the cryptographic literature. It should not have been included in Wikipedia without a reference to something more specific. But oh well, no one is perfect, sometimes these things happen. Your request for an elaborate survey of MITM defence is ...


3

The key must be kept secret or it is no longer an encryption system. They key must be shared at some point, when is not important, but how is, and how determines when. You can send encrypted messages to someone, then hand them the key on a post-it note at a later point in time so they can decode it, or on a flash drive, or some other physical handoff or ...


3

It is possible to achieve PFS against active adversaries in two messages. The "as we know" that you mention is incorrect; this misconception seems to stem from over-interpreting Krawczyk's result in his HMQV paper from 2005. At best, the argument seems to hold from protocols that exchange messages of the form g^x, g^y, where x and y are random values: for ...


3

Given a SSL-enabled web site, the Qualys SSL tester will tell what ciphersuite would be negotiated by a bunch of different browsers if they connected to that web site. It will also tell you the list of ciphersuites supported by that server and the list of ciphersuites are supported by each of those major browsers. For example, here is the output for one ...


3

SIGMA The SIGMA paper does not describe how a "response message" for SIGMA-I would be implemented. If it was implemented as (for example) $B$ sending $\:\operatorname{MAC}_{K_m}\hspace{-0.02 in}(\text{"ACK"})\:$ to $A$, then that would not actually provide the desired peer awareness property in the case where $\: B = \text{"ACK"} \:$. If || denotes ...


3

In addition to the earlier remarks about the missing background of your question please also consider that TLS and IKEv2 are actually not just a single authentication and key exchange protocol but rather a framework that supports many different AKA protocols. Let us use TLS as an example. In TLS you have the concept of ciphersuites and they allow you to ...


3

Since you do not describe why TLS Handshake and IKE are appropriate in your situation, and as long as you don't describe your situation, it's hard to really help you. Also, you haven't stated if it's only IKE that's not appropriate, or if that also includes IKEv2 (which improved the IKE protocol). Therefore, I'll simply assume you meant both. As an ...


3

PKCS#3 is an older standard which only defines the DH primitive itself. It contains the following information: parameter generation, the Diffie Hellman key agreement algorithm, integer/octet string conversions (as in PKCS#1, RSA) and the specification of an ASN.1 structure for the parameters. The ASN.1 structure is very limited, containing only the necessary ...


3

I will address your question below, however I have a serious concern that I want to bring up first. I glanced at the $p$ used in ngx_ssl_dhparam, and it is not immediately obvious that it was chosen correctly. Unless you know that whoever generated that value knew what they were doing, you should select a different value. The security of DH depends on, ...


3

What is usually meant by "group encryption" is not what you are after. Group encryption algorithms strive to achieve the following: a given message is encrypted, and may be decrypted only if sufficiently many group members collaborate. This is not what you seek; what you want is a system such that a given message can be encrypted once and every member of the ...


3

The major thing missing from Diffie-Hellman is that it provides no protection from someone running a man-in-the-middle attack. Your changes don't actually do anything to prevent that. That is, suppose Eve was between Alice and Bob; when Alice sends the first message to Bob, Eve intercepts the message, and performs the exchange with Alice. At the same ...


3

A possible deficiency is that if the use made of any $K_j$ allows it to leak, all later security is lost. That makes $K_j$ plain unsuitable in some uses, e.g. directly as keystream for short messages. The $K_j$ must be wide enough that it is extremely unlikely that a cycle is ever reached in deriving them. For plausible parameters that translates to ...


2

There have been a large number of so-called authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol proposals in the literature since the sigma protocols that could be used to replace them. I know of too many to list. They offer various advantages over the sigma protocols, ranging from various stronger security properties (some interesting ones, some which might be of ...


2

The first part of the protocol – e.g. alice choosing a random secret key and sending it public-key-encrypted to Bob – is in essence the same as the usual RSA key exchange used in SSL/TLS. As you mentioned, Mallory can't read the key, but can start her own connection to Bob pretending to be Alice, so this part only provides authentication of Bob for Alice, ...


2

I guess the best place to begin is with the paper that started it all: Entity authentication and key distribution, by Bellare and Rogaway. In a nutshell, they define a protocol to be a secure mutual authenticated key exchange if it fulfills the following four criteria (I will explain the term "matching conversation" below): Matching conversations ...


2

We know that traditional mathematical proofs can contain mistakes, and that these mistakes can remain undiscovered for years. Sometimes, the scheme is secure even if the proof is incorrect, e.g. RSA-OAEP. Sometimes, the scheme is mildly flawed, the flaws undiscovered because of mistakes in the proof, e.g. HMQV. And sometimes a scheme is simply insecure. We ...


2

In an ordinary ID-based scheme, you won't get strong PFS. The center always knows a secret that can be used to recover your private key and thus can violate PFS. One approach is a hybrid scheme, such as the following. You could do a (non-ID-based) Diffie-Hellman or ECDH key exchange, with messages signed and authenticated using an ID-based signature ...


2

First, understand that keys need to last only as long as you need to recover what they are protecting. If you are storing a secret in a box until next year, you have to keep the key until next year. But if we're talking on the phone, we only have to keep the key for the duration of the phone call. If Alice and Bob are going to speak securely, they don't ...


2

From my understanding, this protocol makes use of a trusted third party in order from A and B to exchange a symmetric key, $K_{AB}$. For the protocol to work, it is assumed that both A and B must share a master key, $K_{AS}$ and $K_{BS}$ respectively with the trusted S and A wants to communicate with B but they has no shared secret. Since there is no ...


2

Is there any chance of finding symmetric key from encrypted public key? The answer is no, assuming the symmetric key has sufficient entropy and a secure encryption algorithm and mode is used correctly. Modern ciphers like AES with proper secret keys are not vulnerable to known plaintext attacks. Why? This has been answered in an earlier question: Why ...



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