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While it may be confusing, that Wikipedia article is actually correct! Let me try to explain it a bit better… Definition of key whitening Key whitening is an extremely simple technique to make block ciphers like DES much more resistant against brute-force attacks. Like you’ve already discovered yourself, this is the basic scheme: Or, defining it a bit ...


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A key derivation function lets you derive keys from others. In this case I would use HKDF, which means using HMAC in a predefined way. Your key material is the keys $X$ and $Y$, so you can concatenate those to get the PRK for HKDF-Expand. An output key would then be $\operatorname{HMAC}(X||Y, \text{info} || \text{0x01})$, if the size of the HMAC is long ...


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One way key whitening improves security is by increasing resistance to bruteforce attacks (and doing this essentially for free). Consider, for example, DES. Key is 56 bits, so given a single pair $(M, E=DES(K,M))$ attacker will find $K$ in $2^{55}$ operations on average. By employing key whitening it is possible to increase required effort substantially: we ...


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Trevor Perrin wrote a library doing exactly that. Explanation can be found on in the curves mailing list archives. To convert a Curve25519 public key $x_C$ into an Ed25519 public key $y_E$, with a Ed25519 sign bit of $0$: $$y_E = \frac{x_C - 1}{x_C + 1} \mod 2^{255}-19$$ The Ed25519 private key may need to be adjusted to match the sign bit of $0$: if ...


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If the same access rules are used, and if you don't have to input your passphrase then by definition it is as safe as when it was in the key ring. If you do have to insert your passphrase then the key may be decrypted and then encrypted back again. In that case you've got two possible security issues: the key bits have been exposed after they have been ...


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I know how Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange works. Is this the main way of encrypting with PGP, ssh, ssl (https), DKIM, ...? As the name says Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a key exchange protocol, i.e., a protocol where two parties agree on a common secret without having exchanged any secret prior to that, in an interactive way, i.e., both parties are ...


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Short answer, before someone marks this as a duplicate or answers it with an essay or something: You're exactly right. This was one of the biggest consequences of the infamous Heartbleed exploit in OpenSSL, which exposed the memory of processes using OpenSSL for TLS to anyone with an Internet connection. It's also significant for cold boot attacks, where ...


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Related to Curve25519 Curve25519 seems to be secure so far. Yet, you have to remind yourself that Dr. Bernstein specified Curve25519 for key-exchange. Meaning: key-generation, transaction signing, and verification are somewhat different beasts – you might want to cross-check on that before jumping toward Curve25519. Sure, Curve25519-java supports signing… ...


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HMAC is considered the most secure way of combining two keys, as compared to a single round of SHA256. hmac is designed to fold in the key material in 2 hash operations, which helps resist chosen plaintext attacks on sha-256, although SHA256 has no known chosen plaintext attacks at this time. Symmetric ciphers are considered less reliable than hashes for ...



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