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Contrary to your assumption, this is done, and it is secure: For instance, the hash functions SHA-224 and SHA-384 are basically the same algorithms as SHA-256 and SHA-512! The only differences are in the initial values for the Merkle-Damgård construction used internally and, of course, in that only the first $224$ or $384$ bits of the resulting hash are ...


3

No, there is no known way. It would actually be rather surprising if there were even a theoretical way; the SHA-256 and the SHA-512 compression functions are rather different (for one, one works with 32 bit words and the other works with 64 bit words); one wouldn't expect them to share any sort of relation.



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