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My understanding of the term 'pepper' is that it more matches your definition 2, in that a pepper is an unknown salt, which makes it a cryptographic secret, but not a key. However, in use it is not as limited by either of your definitions: The pepper can be different (or random) for all users (like a salt). The pepper can be the same for all users (like a ...


2

From the Catena paper, version 2. A salt refers to an additional random input value for the password scrambler, stored together with the password hash. It enables a password scrambler to derive lots of different password hashes from a single password like an initialization vector enables an encryption scheme to derive lots of different ciphertexts from a ...


1

The MAC algorithms used in TLS (and the older SSL) cipher suites have historically been HMAC, with the hash function used in the HMAC specified in the cipher suite. HMAC is very widely used and described so I won't repeat the full description of it here, but it essentially hashes all the data in messages being sent to and from the webserver, combining the ...


1

To quote from the paper you linked: The above particular values of $\mathrm{opad}$ and $\mathrm{ipad}$ were chosen to have a very simple representation (to simplify the function’s specification and minimize the potential of implementation errors), and to provide a high Hamming distance between the pads. The latter is intended to exploit the mixing ...


1

There are two parts to this proposal: the use of a code book and a scheme to send short confidential and authenticated messages utilising an existing shared symmetric key. A code book can be used alone to provide a degree of confidentiality, or can be used to ascribe specific pre-agreed meanings to short messages, in combination with any scheme for sending ...



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