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By the modern definition of a cipher, it must be possible to encipher several messages with the same secret key. That's also a practical necessity, due to the difficulty of securely establishing a shared secret key. That issue is solved with the nonce, which is not secret, and can be transferred as part of the ciphertext (typically: at the beginning). ...


No, the nonce is not fit to be a HMAC key, because anybody can view the nonce in transit. If - on the other hand - the TLS connection does deliver enough security then you would not need the HMAC. It's fine to use the nonce as one time code, but you don't need the HMAC for that. If an attacker can obtain nonce's send to clients than the attacker can always ...

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