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By the modern definition of a cipher, it must be possible to encipher several messages with the same secret key. That's also a practical necessity, due to the difficulty of securely establishing a shared secret key. That issue is solved with the nonce, which is not secret, and can be transferred as part of the ciphertext (typically: at the beginning). ...


What you're describing is pretty similar to the SIV block cipher mode. It also uses a deterministic function of the message to derive the nonce for CTR encryption. Under some pretty widely accepted assumptions about HMAC-SHA256 this is a perfectly fine way of achieving deterministic authenticated encryption. It doesn't meet IND-CPA (as you pointed out) but ...

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