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8

Usually, $^\top$ denotes the transpose of a matrix or vector. Common variants include $^t$ and $^T$. Hence $(c_1,c_2)^\top$ is just $\begin{pmatrix}c_1\\c_2\end{pmatrix}$. Such notation is often used to fit column vectors neatly into text.


4

There is not a single standard for pseudocode. The := operator is the assignment operator from Pascal, a programming language which was in widespread usage in the 1970s and 1980s, especially for teaching purposes. Many academics have thus been exposed to Pascal and remember it. In Pascal, the equality comparison is =, which matches mathematical practice. By ...


3

To quote yyyyyyy from the comments: The $_R$ has nothing to do with the field — it is associated to $\in$! To quote your first link: "For a set $S$, by $a\in_R S$, we mean that $a$ is randomly chosen from $S$." and to quote SEJPM from the comments: If $p\in \mathbb P$ (with $\mathbb P$ being the set of all primes) then the notations ...


3

So let's start with the hash functions: $$H_n:A\times B\times C \rightarrow D$$ is the mathematican's notion for a function called $H_n$ that takes arguments from the sets $A,B,C$ (in this order) and maps it to $D$, where $B,C$ are optional. You're facing three types of sets for this: $\{0,1\}^*$ is the set of binary bit-strings of arbitrary size, e.g. ...


1

Correct me if I am wrong $xH_1$ $(ID_A,w_0)$ means $x \times H_1(ID_A) \oplus H_1(w_0)$ where $x \in Z_q^*$ It is hard to formally respond because I don't have access to the paper you mention but with common sense, just by reading the $H_1$ definition, $xH_1$ $(ID_A,w_0)$ means $x \times H_1(ID_A, w_0)$ where $ID_A \in \{0,1\}^*$ and $w_0 \in Z_p^*$. ...



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