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2

I guess you are taking this information from this document. In Section 2.1 you can see a table with different sizes. In particular, a plaintext block (that is, an encoded message) has size $(n-k) \log_2 p$ bits, while a ciphertext has size $n \log_2 q$ bits. The explanation is simple: ciphertexts are actually polynomials of $n$ terms (since degree is $n-1$)...


3

Yes, these are public parameters of the system. Note that NTRU is not implemented exactly this way any more. The most up-to-date current spec is EESS#1, which can be obtained from https://github.com/NTRUOpenSourceProject/ntru-crypto/blob/master/doc/EESS1-v3.1.pdf.



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