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Actually, you are quite correct; you have not been given enough information to determine the probability. The piece of information that you have not been given is the probability distribution that the plaintext was originally chosen from. Perhaps all 128 possible plaintexts were chosen with equal probability (that is, with probability $1/128$). Perhaps ...


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This question is not really well defined. If by "Would this actually work?" you mean "Will this be as good as using a one time pad of length y" then the short answer is No. Anything susceptible to a brute force attack is not as secure as a one time pad. What are you trying to achieve? If you already agreed on a key of 512 bits and assume this is the ...


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This looks like part of a problem posted from the first week's assignment of the Cryptography 1 Coursera course. Boneh outlines in his course material how XOR'ing two cipher texts encrypted with the same key result in a new cipher, similar to below. $$ m_1 \oplus k = c_1 \\ m_2 \oplus k = c_2 \\ c_1 \oplus c_2 = m_1 \oplus k \oplus m_2 \oplus k = m_1 ...



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