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(1) is the correct answer. The Vengiere cipher phrase is a distractor. Basically all alphabets are in the cipher. Note that the key does not need to be infinite, merely the same length as the plaintext and random. So in that regard, all of the answers are incorrect... But (1) is the "best" answer as it is the answer with the most entropy or randomness, ...


We know, by the encryption rule for one-time pads, where $k$ is the re-used pad: $p_1 \oplus k = c_1$ and $p_2 \oplus k = c_2$. For $\oplus$ (xor) the following arithmetic is valid: $a \oplus a = 0$ for all $a$ (everything is its own inverse), which is clear from truth tables, e.g., and $a \oplus (b \oplus c) = (a \oplus b) \oplus c$, i.e. the operation ...

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