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OpenSSL supports several different formats for RSA private keys, but the actual key value in all is identical. All use ASN.1 and the differences are whether the format handles RSA only (called "legacy" or "raw" PKCS#1) or can handle other algorithms (PKCS#8) which is usable somewhat more generally (still not very) whether the key value is encrypted or not ...


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I'd suggest to get OpenSSL source, build it, and run it under debugger, watching exactly what "-text" is doing to private key. One could verify exponentiation operations with a calculator having big numbers capability. ASN.1/DER parser could be handy to see private key file.


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Have you played with OpenPGP / GnuPG (aka gpg)? gpg is a command-line tool similar to OpenSSL, but focused on end-user encrypting / signing, rather than on server / certificates / transport layer. You might find gpg suitably low-level for learning about keys -- that's where I started :-P


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Cipher Feedback mode turns the block cipher (AES) into a self-synchronizing stream cipher which feeds back the full ciphertext block as the next IV. If you encrypt something smaller than a multiple of the block size, it will not use all of the block cipher output to create the ciphertext, just the amount it needs. Therefore there is not a padding ...



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