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This describes some attacks against textbook RSA (also known as raw RSA), where the public or private functions $x\to y=x^e\bmod N$ or $y\to x=y^d\bmod N$ are applied directly to the message. Encryption / Decryption Determinism in textbook RSA allows an attacker - given a ciphertext - to search for the corresponding plaintext. Determinism also leads to ...


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Textbook RSA encryption scheme is not IND-CPA secure as it is a deterministic scheme. Textbook RSA signature scheme is not secure considering Existential Unforgability under Chosen Message Attack. e.g. if attacker $\mathcal{A}$ chooses random x $\in$ {1,2,...,n-1} and computes y = x$^{e}$ mod n, then sets m = y, $\sigma_{m}$ = x then $\sigma_{m}$ is a valid ...


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The "normal", unmodified RSA (called textbook RSA) is susceptible to some attacks. We need to change it slightly to avoid this problems. The question Definition of Textbook RSA and the Wikipedia lists some possible attacks. In practice a special padding algorithm is used, like the Optimal asymmetric encryption padding (OAEP). The documentation of the ...



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