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No, there are no security compromises; the Pallier system remains secure. Both messages are in the supported message space and as Paillier encryption provides IND-CPA security you are safe when doing this.


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Let's review the encryption process for Paillier: Let $m$ be a message to be encrypted where $m\in\mathbb{Z}_n$ (in your case $m\in\{0,1\}$) Select random $r$ where $r\in\mathbb{Z}_n^*$ Compute ciphertext as: $c=g^m\cdot r^n\bmod{n^2}$ It is that random value $r$ that makes it so that encrypting values drawn from a small plaintext space does not have ...



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