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15

Well, cryptographers have been contemplating a post-quantum world for some time now. Quantum computing, although in its infancy as far as real-life computers go, has been studied in a theoretical sense for a quite a while. Shor's algorithm was published 19 years ago; Grover's, 17 years ago. These are the two most-famous quantum algorithms, I think, but the ...


11

Unless Keccak has structural weaknesses that I am not aware of, the answer is surprisingly neither 128 nor 256! Gilles Brassard, Peter Høyer and Alain Tapp describe a sort of quantum birthday attack in their paper "Quantum Cryptanalysis of Hash and Claw-Free Functions" that effectively works by creating a table of size $\sqrt[3]{2^b}$ (versus the ...


7

With any $n$ bit hash it is possible to: Find preimages with work $2^n$ on classical computers and $2^{n/2}$ using quantum computers Find collisions with work $2^{n/2}$ on classical computers and $2^{n/3}$ using quantum computers I want to emphasize that these are generic attacks that always work, no matter which concrete hashfunction is used. Grover's ...


6

I can't agree with bullet 3. of the question stating quantum computers are getting stronger with a good pace (82-qbit computer last year, 512-qbit computer this year), at least in a context of cryptanalysis. Even the marketing people praising the device alluded to do not pretend that it is of a kind useful for cryptanalysis: they state about it: The ...


5

This is highly insecure, for the same reason that ECB mode and simple substitution ciphers are. Every time you use the word the in your message, it will be encrypted the same way. The same goes for other, lower-frequency (but still fairly common) words -- like as or with or will (or any of hundreds of other examples). This is a humongous clue to ...


4

In the majority of multivariate cryptographic schemes (MQ) the encryption/signature function $E$ is a composition of secret affine invertible transformations $A,B$ and a nonlinear transformation $P$ (can be secret or public): $$ E = B\circ P\circ A $$ $P$ is typically invertible, and the goal of the scheme is to make $E$ non-invertible even though it is ...


4

If he chooses $s$ at random, then the scheme will be stateless but will fail after using the same $s$ twice, which should happen after giving approximately $\:$$\Theta$$\big(\hspace{-0.05 in}$ $2^{H/2}$$\hspace{-0.01 in}\big)\:$ signatures. If he chooses $s$ by applying a PRF to $g(m)$, then the scheme will be deterministic and stateless, but can be ...


4

"Frequency analysis of the output might help determine simple words in the ciphertext such as 'the' etc if that word is repeated and sent multiple times. This isn't necessarily a problem as it's only a simple word and doesn't convey much meaning to the message". If the word "the" doesn't convey much meaning, then why have you used that particular ...


4

McEliece NTRU Multivariate If you mean "syntactically public key" instead of "implies the existence of secure key agreement", then there is also hash-based signatures.


4

I'm not going to exactly answer your question, because I have no idea. I simply do not know how fast the quantum computer is that NSA is building in secret. However I could explain why people recommend 256-bit security in the face of quantum computing using some numbers. If you feel that $2^{128}$ is a comfortable security against bruteforcing, remember ...


3

The problem is that the key is essentially random data and thus cannot be meaningfully compressed. Several variations of the McEliece cryptosystem have tried modifying it to produce public keys with special structure which are compressable. However, all such systems have been broken (as far as I know), and it seems that in most cases, adding special ...


3

It would appear that (for example) Shamir's original threshold secret sharing scheme would meet the requirements of 'post-quantum' (that is, remain secure even if that attacker has access to a Quantum computer). Let us assume that the shares were generated using a truly random stream; in that case, someone with $N-1$ shares (where $N$ is the threshold) does ...


3

I am not quite sure why you are looking for the kind you have mentioned in your question. But good old Shamir's polynomial secret sharing over finite fields, look here, provides information theoretic secrecy, i.e., even a quantum computer will not help you to break the secrecy.


3

Your scheme would make a nice puzzle for amateur codebreakers. That's about the best that can be said for it. It does not meet the generally accepted standards for a modern encryption scheme; in particular, it is not semantically secure. In fact, the security of your scheme would be seriously compromised if an attacker obtained even a small amount of ...


3

This is a type of code book security. Code books can be very strong or very weak depending on operational security. If you never reuse a code book word even in a single message and the code words are genuinely random - this approach could work. Of course if you can't reuse code words and need perhaps 40 instances of THE and 30 instances BE to avoid ...


3

Summary. The short answer is: Cryptography would be insecure. Any encryption you can do with a non-deterministic algorithm, can be broken (in approximately the same running time) by another non-deterministic algorithm. Non-determinism is extremely powerful. If you give everyone access to non-determinism, then secure encryption becomes impossible: the ...


2

$w$ is a parameter that can be freely chosen, to maximize performance. Each element of the signature encodes $w$ bits of the message to be signed, so the larger $w$ is, the fewer elements you need to include in the signature. If you make $w$ large, then signatures can be shorter; however, the tradeoff is that key generation, signing, and verification run ...


2

The security of the LD scheme can be reduced to the one-wayness (aka preimage resistance) of the used hash function. The reduction is quite easy: Assume you want to invert the one-way function $f$ for image $y=f(x)$, given a forger for LD-OTS. Then you generate a valid LD key pair using $f$, sample a random position i in the key pair and a bit b and ...


2

Hash trees alone wont do that. But hash trees in combination with one time signatures (this is called the Merkle signature scheme). If you use hash based one time signatures such as Lamport-Diffie, then yes. Basically, the hash tree is used to "aggregate" $k$ public keys by representing the hash values of the public keys as leaves of the hash tree and ...


2

D-Wave does quantum annealing. It's not general-purpose quantum computing; in fact, the CEO claims that the gate-model for quantum computers is the worst thing that ever happened to the field. I have worked on quantum research as recently as 2012 and the gate-model is still the main focus for funded research. Shor's algorithm for factorization (which runs ...


2

This scheme is very unsecure. In my humble opinion is like a complicated "translate your message into a unknown language". In my opinion it looks like an hashed version of the Windtalkers (WW2 native americans language used to encrypt messages). Your version add one more level: you have few languages (hash functions) to choose among.


2

Probably because they figured that using only one affine map might not be secure. Also, be warned that the Wikipedia article you are citing has serious problems. It is written as though there is a single scheme called "Multivariate Cryptography" with a specific form -- but that is wrong. In fact, multivariate cryptography refers to a class of schemes that ...


2

As D.W. notes, this works for the purpose in question. Actually, relying on number theoretic assumptions for the accumulators will give you no benefit as you have observed. However, here is a construction of accumulators from Nyberg in FSE'96, which does not rely on number theoretic or any computational assumptions. This is the paper of Nyberg and you may ...


1

McEliece public keys need about 100 kByte to 1 MByte depending on the desired security level. 65 kB for 80 bits of security (too low, corresponds to 1024 bit RSA) 150 kB for 112 bits of security 220 kB for 128 bits of security 1000 kB for 256 bits of security The McBits paper contains the following table:


1

Firstly, I assume we are talking about classical computers Implementing a brute force attack on a RSA may not be the most sensible thing, unless of course the security parameter of your target system is small.. (160 bit numbers! ) Even then you may not want to implement a brute force here.. try using Fermat's Factoring or Pollards $\rho$ method. If you ...


1

As I already outlined in this answer, hash trees in combination with any one-time signature scheme gives the so called Merkle signature scheme. I assume there is some misunderstanding and therefore I sketch merkle signatures subsequently: The idea is to produce $n$ key pairs $(X_i,Y_i)$ of a one-time signature scheme and then to take the hash values ...


1

The Merkle tree signature scheme mainly assumes that the underlying hash function used is cryptographically secure. The pre-image and second preimage properties are especially important here as an attacker should not be able to : find preimage m such that h(m) = public key. (preimage resistance) Otherwise, the verifier may be able tricked into thinking ...


1

First, the passage you refer to is on page 55, 2nd paragraph. And it would also be great if you'd announce that figure 4.1 is actually in a different document ;-) took me quite a while to figure this out. Now to your question. So, I assume you understand the paragraph? You have to note that a round here corresponds to $2^{(i-1)h}$ "whole tree rounds". Now, ...


1

Adding more qubits does not increase the computation speed. A quantum computer with 4 qubits does not factorize faster than one with 2. The qubits are the "memory" of the quantum computer. More qubits mean you can factor bigger numbers. If I remember correctly, you need a superposition of $\Theta(N^2)$ terms, which means $\Theta(\log(N^2))$ qubits to factor ...


1

Quantum computers are not yet at the stage where they can be deployed to brute-forcing public RSA moduli. There is no evidence of a quantum computer using more than 7 qubits. The company D-Wave has made several bold claims, but offered little evidence. source: http://www.technologyreview.com/view/426586/worlds-largest-quantum-computation-uses-84-qubits/



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