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Grover's algorithm treats the function it is evaluating as a black box and finds, with high probability, an input to the black box such that it outputs a specified value in $O(N^{1/2})$ evaluations of the function. Since Grover's algorithm works on the function as a black box, your modification does not hinder Grover's algorithm at all in finding the ...


Douglas Stebila published: We demonstrate the practicality of post-quantum key exchange by constructing ciphersuites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that provide key exchange based on the ring learning with errors (R-LWE) problem There is also a patch implementing it for OpenSSL 1.0.1f.


That means a plaintext of length 524 will be encrypted to a ciphertext of length 1024 and then will be sent. Isn't is also an inefficiency? Not really; or at least, that's not an inefficiency we care about. A length of 1024 means, in this context, 1024 bits (or 128 bytes). This compares favorably to RSA (for which a key with a 1024 bit ciphertext has ...

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