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SSL was designed long ago when encrypt-then-MAC wasn't that popular yet. Even TLS 1.2, published in 2008, is pretty old by now, and while encrypt-then-MAC was preferred by then, the practical risks were underestimated for a long time. Padding oracles attacks became well known after several high profile attacks in 2010. With stream ciphers, MAC-then-encrypt ...


3

I may be interpreting your question incorrectly, but it sounds to me like you are asking if Caroline can prove (in court or whatever) that she can only gain access to some secret $S$ if both Alice and Bob collaborate in revealing it to her. Unfortunately as you have currently set up the question, I don't think that is possible, because your question ...



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