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Question1: How can we show/prove that the random element only with a negligible probability can have such structure? If we assume the random oracle model and have $h: \{0,1\}^* \to \{0,1\}^n$ then we can state that $h(.)$ is equivalent to randomly sampling from $\{0,1\}^n$. Thus for a random element $r = r'||r''$ the probability that $r$ has the structure $...

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