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Since Blum-Micali is cryptographically secure, you know that there won't be a short cycle (not one short enough to detect in polynomial time), because a short cycle would violate cryptographic security. Therefore, you don't need to worry about this. It's not worth your time worrying about it: it's very unlikely you'll run into a short cycle. That said, ...


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NIST has a lot of information on testing random number generators at http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/toolkit/rng/index.html that might be of value to you.


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Your approach makes getting information other than count of cards in possession of each player at least as hard as breaking the PRFness of HMAC. To make it information-theoretically impossible "for all the ... each player", $\;\;$ if different card_values have different lengths then use $\;\;$ SHA256(commonly_agreed_public_salt:card_value) $\;\;$ ...


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The answer given by Henrick is good, but I try to give a explanation with more details in security area. When you think about PRF (Pseudo Random Function), you will think that there are three elements with PRF, which is $K, X, Y$. $K$ means the key, $X$ means the message and $Y$ means the output. PRF is a function, when you give this function $K$ and $X$, ...



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