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5

How do we keep $\phi(n)$ secret? We don't tell people what it is. The problem of finding $\phi(n)$ given $n$ is a hard problem (if $n$ is hard to factor). So, if we give people a number that they can't factor, and we don't give them $\phi(n)$, they can't determine it on their own.


3

The requirement is that your element $g$ is in $\mathbb{Z}_{n^2}^*$ and not in $(\mathbb{Z}_{n}^*)^2$. The set $\mathbb{Z}_{n^2}^*$ is the set of integers smaller than $n^2$ that are relatively prime to $n^2$, i.e., you require an element $g$ from $\mathbb{Z}_{n^2}$ such that $\gcd(g,n^2)=1$. $(\mathbb{Z}_{n}^*)^2$ on the other hand is the set of pairs ...


2

As already mentioned in a previous comment, ECIES (a hybrid encryption scheme) is typically the way to go when implementing asymmetric encryption on elliptic curves, as it is standardized. It provides chosen ciphertext security (IND-CCA). But as you are looking for "pure" public key encryption schemes, here we go: ElGamal can not only be implemented in ...



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