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At first I want to cite Lindell and Katz book: A "plain Rabin" encryption scheme, constructed in a manner analogous to plain RSA encryption, is vulnerable to a chosen-ciphertext attack that enables an adversary to learn the entire private key. Although plain RSA is not CCA-secure either, known chosen-ciphertext attacks on plain RSA are less damaging ...


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That practice of replacing the result of $y=x^d\bmod N$ (or $y=x^e\bmod N$) by $\hat y=\min(y,N-y)$ is also in ISO/IEC 9796-2:2010 (paywalled) and ancestors; I first met that in [INCITS/ANSI]/ISO/IEC 9796:1991, also given in the Handbook of Applied Cryptography, see in particular note 11.36. ISO/IEC 9796 was a broken and now withdrawn ...


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An older copy of P1363 Public Key Cryptography was used below. In may (or may not) reflect the current state of affairs. It also uses Bernstein's RSA signatures and Rabin–Williams signatures: the state of the art. Do tweaked roots violate P1363? What I might be really asking is, does an exponent of 2 run afoul of P1363, but I'm not sure at the moment. ...



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