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"Splitting into $d + 1$ shares" is mentioned in the Introduction, right after a reference to secret sharing schemes and mentioning threshold property. So, this particular IACR preprint is not the best source on secret sharing. I'd suggest to start from Shamir secret sharing algorithm.


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I don't know of any Yao-type garbling scheme where Encode is probabilistic. Think about Yao circuits - the encoding is providing the garbled key on the input wire for the associated bit. Note that the garbling is of course probabilistic and must be. However, once the garbling is fixed, the encoding is typically deterministic. Having said the above, as a ...


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If I understand you properly, you are going to test some cryptographical primitives by running them on some plaintext, and then taking the resulting ciphertext and giving it to a randomness test suite; your question is "what plaintext should I use? If I pick a random plaintext, then the test results might reflect the randomness of the plaintext, and no ...


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An exhaustive search of half the key space requires $2^{n-1}$ work and provides the right answer 75% of the time. I haven't read that book, and so they may give a cavaet about the larger picture. However, as specified, I don't believe that's correct, but not for the reason you think. If you present a distinguisher with a copy of the cipher, it will give ...


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Schneier is talking about distinguishing a block cipher from an ideal cipher - or in other words, about formal definitions for security. Think of a game, where the attacker is given a ciphertext encrypted either with a block cipher or with an ideal cipher (with equal probability), and has to guess which cipher encrypted the message. Let's say this attacker ...


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Yes you can for the simple reason that XOR'ing a completely random stream with any value will still result in a random stream - although obviously very dependent for the randomness on the source stream. There is however absolutely no point in doing so. XOR-ing a stream with a well seeded PRNG could be a good idea, but XOR'ing it with a single byte value (...


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Yes, if you XOR any values with a secure random numbers, you end up with secure random numbers. You can easily see this by assuming the insecure random number is a constant instead. It only changes what the numbers are, it does not affect their relative probabilities.



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