New answers tagged randomness
Find NIST statistical tests suite for (p)rng provided by National Institute of Science and Technology (Formerly NBS, National Bureau of Standards) here http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/toolkit/rng/index.html and documention at NIST (see above) or here: National Institute of Science and Technology (Formerly NBS, National Bureau of Standards)
You can never actually prove that it was generated randomly or pseudorandomly. You can only prove with high probability that it wasn't. Calculating the number of heads and tails is one way. Another is calculating runs of consecutive heads or tails. There is a suite of statistical tests from NIST in their FIPS 140-2 document which is a good place to start. ...
I've read that a good RNG will have a range of p-values that follows a uniform distribution; values between 0 and 1 should happen with about equal probability. Why should that be so? It comes straight from the definition of p-values. The p-value indicates the probability you'd get at least that skewed a result if the source is truly random. So you ...
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