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MD5 was designed with the goal that any change in the input uniformly affects all the bits of the output. It's not perfect, but it's pretty good. If you're choosing the input "randomly enough" (e.g., by appending random bits before hashing) then your question approaches this one: Given two randomly generated 8-bit strings, what is the probability that ...


4

You can use these schemes instead: “Evaluating 2-DNF Formulas on Ciphertexts”, or “A Simple BGN-type Cryptosystem from LWE”. These schemes enable you to do addition, a single multiplication, and more additions. For inner product, that's all you need (encrypt each item separately, multiply pairs, and add all together). Not everything needs FHE. In any ...


3

Before answering the actual question, I will offer some general advice. It is important to pay attention, both in class and to the textbook you are reading. If learning how to solve such exercises is a key goal of the course, such solutions have very probably been discussed at length in class. Moreover, your textbook also has proof examples, and in this ...


1

First, a bit of background. If we refer to the size of an elliptic curve group as $n$, we select an elliptic curve with $n = hq$, where $q$ is a large prime, and $h$ is a small integer called the cofactor; it is typically either 1, 4 or 8. The values of $q$ and $h$ will be part of the curve definition. As you know, with straight DH, we agree on a point ...


1

I think that you may be referring to hash functions with (not secret) keys as presented in any theoretically rigorous text on cryptography. In practice, hash functions do NOT have keys. However, if you try to define collision resistance without keyed hash functions, then it is impossible to achieve. This is because there always exists an adversary who finds ...



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