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A symmetric cipher design contest was started in Ukraine around 2006, and this cipher (in Ukrainian and Russian: Мухомор) was there. For specifications, look for "Applied Radioelectronics" journal "Прикладная радиоэлектроника", 2007, No 2. http://anpre.org.ua/?q=pre_2007_2 http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/61794/06-Dolgov.pdf

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Take a look at the ECDAA protocols. They are implemented in the Trusted Platform Module (TPM 2.0). ECDAA is based on pairings over elliptic curves. In contrast to Idemix, they have the benefit of being far more efficient. In contrast to U-Prove, they have the benefit to be multi-show unlinkable.

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Since you are approaching this from the point of view of mathematics, I think the most fruitful avenue would be to look at asymptotic performance and security of the problems that the cryptosystems are based on. For example, with RSA you need a modular exponentiation for every message you encrypt or sign. The time that takes depends on the length of the ...

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NIST has yet to standardize any accepted uses for these functions. As they said in response to a comment on the SHA-3 draft (pdf) which questioned this: The text in Section 7 on conformance explicitly asserts that approved uses of the extendable-output functions will be specified in NIST special publications. NIST will consider these comments in the ...

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As of now I can think of four different applications for XOFs. Note that some change the padding depending on the requested output size and so the outputs are truly unrelated, Skein does this. Signature message hashing. Using an XOF you don't have to rely on ad-hoc constructions for hashing the message in signature schemes to the appropriate size. For ...

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Shoup proved security of his scheme in the random oracle model, which means that it should be "as secure" as RSA itself assuming you use a sufficiently strong hash function, which today should be SHA-2. More important than the scheme itself, any implementation should be considered with some suspicion given the substantial history of buggy cryptosystems in ...

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Standards for Efficient Cryptography Group has published SEC1: Elliptic Curve Cryptography (pdf) about elliptic curve algorithms. If it does not explain the mathematics well enough for your purposes, there is also Fundamental Elliptic Curve Cryptography Algorithms (RFC 6090, from IETF) you could look at. There are a lot of issues you can run into, so ...

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I have a very simple code of doing steganography that neither modifies any word of your original text nor poses any constraints on the words you employ in the text; it simply changes a little bit of where the individual lines end and should be barely detectable by the warden. However, it is fairly inefficient, capable of transmitting only 1 stego bit per ...

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As otus suggests in the comments, it's better to first calculate the frequency of each letter in the decrypted message, and then compare the frequency distribution to what would be expected for English text. For the comparison, you can use chi-squared ($\chi^2$) testing. (Actually, for just comparing the likelihoods of different decryptions, you don't even ...

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you could also use some grammar to eliminate false positives, for example, in portuguese, before the letter "p" or "b" there should be a "m" and after the letter "q" there is always a "u", after the letter "l" it will be a vogal or the letter "h". There are patterns like these in english, i just can't seem to remember now xD

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