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In real word RSA modules are so large that probability for finding $c_1$ which is not coprime with $n$ is approximately zero. Also if you founded such number then $p=gcd(c_1,n)\neq1$ so $p$ is a factor of $n$ and in this case attack is not necessary because $n$ is factored. $gcd(296,1073)=37\neq 1$ so $p=37,q=\frac{1073}{37}=29$ and $\phi(n)=1008$ Now ...


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This is an issue with any block cipher. One solution is to pad the message. This means that, first you split it into blocks and then you will have some remaining characters at the end that are not one whole block. So lets say that the block length is L and you have n characters. You can add at the end of your message L-n extra characters so that with those, ...



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