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With regards to the public vs private keys, in RSA, the public key is used to encrypt information, the private key is used to decrypt it. Given only the public key, all you can do is encrypt. So, you can publish that online somewhere (key distribution is a very different problem). Anyone can use it to encrypt a message to you and only you can decrypt it. ...


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The modulus $N$ is implicit in the group $\mathbb Z_N^\ast$ that $c$ and $g$ are chosen from. That is, in this context, $g^a$ is taken to mean "the residue class represented by $x^a\bmod N$ where $x$ denotes some representant of $g$'s residue class". Therefore, when additionally requiring that $a\geq3$ and odd, this notion is equivalent to the strong RSA ...


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While OAEP uses a one-way function on the plaintext, it's not quite a hash: it's called a mask generation function (MGF), and unlike a hash it can produce as much or as little output as you want (the output length is an argument to the function, and input length is decoupled from output length). This output should be pseudorandom. You use this in a ...


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There exist many standards which describe a lot of padding modes and security protocols. If you're new in that field, I strongly recommend you to study the family of PKCS standards which are the reference in the domain. There also exist other distinct standards depending of very specific application fields (Banking, mobile, Cloud, Embedding ... or Global ...



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